PRACTICAL MODEL CALCULATOR, FOR THE ENGINEER, MECHANIC, MACHINIST, MANUFACTURER OF ENGINE-WORK, NAVAL ARCHITECT, BY OLIVER BYRNE, = CIVIL, MILITARY, AND MECHANICAL ENGINEER. 1 Compiler and Editor of the "Dictionary of Machines, Mechanics, Engine-work, and Engineering;" PHILADELPHIA: PUBLISHED BY HENRY CAREY BAIRD. (SUCCESSOR TO E. L. CAREY.) SOUTH-EAST CORNER MARKET AND FIFTH STREETS. 1852. UNIVERSITY SIDOL OF ENG.ALLKING. JUN 2013-7 TRANSFERRED TO BANYAK COLLEGE LIBRARY 345.4 Entered according to the act of Congress, in the year 1851, by HENRY CAREY BAIRD, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. STEREOTYPED BY L. JOHNSON AND CO. PRINTED BY T. K. AND P. G. COLLINS. THE PRACTICAL MODEL CALCULATOR. WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. THE UNIT OF LENGTH. THE YARD.-If a pendulum vibrating seconds in vacuo, in Philadelphia, be divided into 2509 equal parts, 2310 of such equal parts is the length of the standard yard; the measures are taken on brass rods at the temperature of 32° Fahrenheit. This yard will not be in error the ten-millionth part of an inch. 2310 2509 as 1 to 1.086142 nearly. THE UNIT OF WEIGHT. The Pound, avoirdupois, is 27.7015 cubic inches of distilled water, weighed in air, at the temperature of maximum density, 39.82; the barometer at 30 inches. THE LIQUID UNIT. The Gallon, 231 cubic inches, contains 8.3388822 pounds avoirdupois, equal 58372-1754 grains troy of distilled water, at 39°.82 Fah.; the barometer at 30 inches. UNIT OF DRY CAPACITY. The Bushel contains 2150-42 cubic inches, 77-627412 pounds avoirdupois, 543391-89 grains of distilled water, at the temperature of maximum density; the barometer at 30 inches. The French unit of length or distance is the metre, and is the ten-millionth of the quadrant of the globe, measured from the equator to the pole. The French Metre 3.2808992 English feet linear measure = 39-3707904 inches. For Multiples the following Greek | For Divisors the following Latin words are used: words are used: Deci for the 10th part. 10 times. 100 times. Centi 100th part. 1000th part. = 1000 metres. 10000 times. Thus a Kilometre Millimetre = The square Deca Metre, measure in France, which = metre called the Are, is the element of land. 1076-42996 square feet English. The Stere is a cubic metre 35-316582 cubic feet English. The Litre for liquid measure is a cubic decimetre = 1.76077 imperial pints English, at the temperature of melting ice; a litre of distilled water weighs 15434 grains troy. The unit of weight is the gramme: it is the weight of a cubic centimetre of distilled water, or of a millilitre, and therefore equal to 15.434 grains troy. The kilogramme is the weight of a cubic decimetre of distilled water, at the temperature of maximum density, 4o centigrade. The pound troy contains 5760 grains. The pound avoirdupois contains 7000 grains. The English imperial gallon contains 277-274 cubic inches; and the English corn bushel contains eight such gallons, or 2218-192 cubic inches. This is the same as troy weight, only having some different divisions. Apothecaries make use of this weight in compounding their medicines; but they buy and sell their drugs by avoirdupois 4 = 1 ton. 28672 = 1792 = 112 = 57344035840 = 2240 = 80 = 20 = 1 By this weight are weighed all things of a coarse or drossy nature, as Corn, Bread, Butter, Cheese, Flesh, Grocery Wares, and some Liquids; also all Metals except Silver and Gold. Oz. Dwt. Gr. Note, that 1 lb. avoirdupois = 14 11 15 troy. 1 oz. = 0 18 0 1 By this weight are weighed Gold, Silver, and Jewels. LONG MEASURE. 3 Barley-corns............make 1 Inch..............marked In. 12 Inches......... `1 Foot.............. Ft. 2 Inches and a quarter....make 1 Nail .......marked Nl. Pl. Fur. Mile. = 8 = 1 4 Nails 1 Quarter of a Yard.. ........... SQUARE MEASURE. 144 Square Inches........make 1 Sq. Foot.............marked Ft. When three dimensions are concerned, namely, length, breadth, and depth or thickness, it is called cubic or solid measure, which is used to measure Timber, Stone, &c. The cubic or solid Foot, which is 12 inches in length, and breadth, and thickness, contains 1728 cubic or solid inches, and 27 solid feet make one solid yard. 1 Sq. Pl. 301 = |