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For the convenience of pupils, BOOKS ONE and Two and the
ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC are each bound in two parts.




DEC 11 1930





THE main purpose in writing this series of Arithmetics has been to give the subject a broader and more vital practical meaning. By special treatment of the concrete applications of arithmetic, the series develops bread-winning power; and by cultivating a grasp of the functions of number processes, it develops a broad, cultural power.

Among the features which contribute to these ends are the Industry Reviews, which treat of the arithmetical element in representative industries, as agriculture, mining, and forestry. The permanent number facts in geography, history, physics, and other departments have been collected in tables and used repeatedly in examples. These features give a correlation of arithmetic with other studies.

The systematic development of principles is a primary aim of the series. All informational matter has been introduced in such a way as not to break up the regular formal development of principles. For instance, the Industry Reviews are each placed at the end of a chapter.

The all-important subject of review work has received special attention. In many places the examples call for both written and oral review of important parts of the preceding year's work. This repeated review of preceding work not only gives a more thorough mastery of processes, but in large measure relieves the teacher of the labor of dictating supplementary examples. If the prescribed drills and reviews are followed, practically all

the pupils using these books should become rapid and accurate computers.

Special mention should be made also of those exercises which develop a grasp of principles of efficiency and economy, and thus prepare pupils, not only for efficient business management, but for efficient life in general.

Book Three is designed for use in Grades VII and VIII under ordinary circumstances. To suit the greater mental grasp of pupils in these grades, the treatment is mainly topical.

To avoid the repetition of material with which the pupil is already familiar, and thus the better to sustain the pupil's interest, the treatment in the early chapters is condensed largely into review exercises. The teacher, in certain cases, will find it advisable still further to condense this review work.

Special attention has been given to embodying in the book the latest business practice. See, for example, the treatment of Trade, Transportation, and Classification of Freights (pp. 235– 238).

A large number of Industry Review exercises have been given. Six of these, for instance, relate to different aspects of agriculture. It is expected that each teacher will emphasize such of these Industry Reviews as are important in the community where the book is being used, and will abbreviate or omit others.

The author wishes to express his obligation to Miss Elizabeth Hall, Supervisor of the Primary Grades in the public schools of Minneapolis, and to James J. Sheppard, Principal of the High School of Commerce, New York City, for their important suggestions concerning the manuscript of the book.

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