2. Add and together. 3. Add and together, 4. Add 124 3 and 43 together. 5. Add of 95 and of 14 together. NOTE 1.-In adding mixed numbers that are not compounded with other fractions, you may first find the sum of the fractions, to which add the whole numbers of the given mixed numbers. 6. Find the sum of 53 74 and 15. 7. Add and 17 together. 8. Add 25, 81 and 2 of 3 of 15 Ans. 17% NOTE 2.-To add fractions of money, weight, &c. reduce fractions of different integers to those of the same, Or, if you please you may find the value of each fracfion by Case VIII. in reduction, and then add them in their proper terms. 9. Add 4 of a shilling to 3 of a pound. 1st Method. of 140 Then 4+3 45,20 11206 Whole value by Case VIII. is 8s. Od. 33qrs. Ans. 2d Method. 3.7s. 6d. Oqrɛ. 4s. 0 6 34 Ans. 8 0 33 By Case VIII. Reduction. 10. Add lb. Troy, to & of a pwt. 11. Add 4 of a ton, to 12. Add 2 of a mile to 13. Add of a yard, gether. 14. Add of a week, a minute together. Ans. 7oz. 4pwt. 15gr. of a cwt. Ans. 12cwt. 1gr. 8lb. 12,8oz Ans. Ofur. 28po. SUBTRACTION OF VULGAR FRACTIONS. RULE.* PREPARE the fractions as in Addition, and the difference of the numerators written above the common denominator, will give the difference of the fraction required. 8. From from? 号 take 11 111 42 31 208 132 5 378 10 T7T O remains. 9. From 1 of a pound, take of a shilling. off. Then from 11. take£. Ans. 31. NOTE. In fractions of money, weight, &c. you may, if you please, find the value of the given fractions (by Case VIII. in Reduction) and then subtract them in their pro per terms. 10. From take 37 shilling. Ans. 5s. 6d. 23qrs. 12. From of a cwt. take Ans. 11pwt. 3gr. of a lb. Ans. 1qr. 27lb. 6oz. 10, dr. 13. From $3 weeks, take of a day, and of of of Ans. Sw. 4da. 12ho. 19min. 174sec an hour. *In subtracting mixed numbers, when the lower fraction is greater than the upper one, you may, without reducing them to improper fractions, subtract the numerator of the lower fraction from the common denominator, and to that difference add the upper numerator, carrying one to the unit's place of the lower whole number. Also, a fraction may be subtracted from a whole number by taking the numerator of the fraction from its denominator, and placing the remainder over the denominator, then taking one from the whole number. MULTIPLICATION OF VULGAR FRACTIONS. RULE. REDUCE whole and mixed numbers to the improper fractions, mixed fractions to simple ones, and those of different integers to the same; then multiply all the numerators together for a new numerator, and all the denominators together for a new denominator. 8. Multiply of 3 by of 34 23 84 9. What is the continued product of of 2, 7, 5 and } of {? Ans. 4 DIVISION OF VULGAR FRACTIONS. RULE. PREPARE the fractions as before; then, invert the divisor and proceed exactly as in multiplication:-The products will be the quotient required. RULE OF THREE DIRECT IN VULGAR RULE. PREPARE the fractions as before, then state your question agreeable to the Rules already laid down in the Rule of Three in whole numbers, and invert the first term in the proportion; then multiply all the three terms continually together, and the product will be the answer, in the same name with the second or middle term. EXAMPLES. 1. If of a yard cost of a pound, what will of an Ell English cost? yd. As Ell. £. El. 2. If come to el ? of 4 of 30 or Ell English. s. d. qrs. And xx.10 3 14 Ans. 4 of a yard cost of a pound, what will 40 yds. Ans. £59 8s. 6d. 3. If 50 bushels of wheat cost 173l. what is it per bushAns. 7s. Od. 123qrs. 4. If a pistareen be worth 143 pence, what are 100 pistareens worth ? Ans. £6 5. A merchant sold 54 pieces of cloth, each containing 243 yds. at 98 d. per yard; what did the whole amount Ans. £60 10s. Od. 33grs. 6. A peston having of a vessel, sells of his share for 3121.; what berthe whole vessel worth? Ans. £780 7. If 7 or a chip de worth of her cargo, valued at 8000l. what is the whole ship and cargo worth? Ans. 10031 14s. 11d. to INVERSE PROPORTION. RULE. PREPARE the fractions and state the question as before, then invert the third term, and multiply all the three terms together, the product will be the answer. EXAMPLES. 1. How much shalloon that is yard wide, will line 5 yards of cloth which is 11 yard wide? Yds. yds. yds. Yds. As 15 And xx=33516, Ans. 2. If a man perform a journey in 3 days, when the day is 12 hours long; in how many days will he do it when the day is but 9 hours. 3. If 13 men in 112 days, mow 21 days will 8 men do the same.. 4. How much in length that is 7 make a square foot ? Ans. 444 days. acres, in how many Ans. 1833 days. inches broad, will Ans. 20 inches. 5. If 2548. will pay for the carriage of an cwt. 145 miles; how far may 6 cwt. be ney? 6. How many yards of baize will line 187 yards of camblet carried for the same moAns. 22 miles. which is 14 yards wide, yd. wide? Ans. 11yds. 1qr. 1 na. RULE OF THREE DIRECT IN DECIMALS. RULE. REDUCE your fractions to decimals, and state your question as in whole numbers; multiply the second and third together; divide by the first, and the quotient will be the answer, &c. EXAMPLES. 1. If of a yd. cost of a pound; what will 154 yds. come to? Yds. £• As ,875,583 :: 12 1,8757,583+and £=,75 Yds. £. £. s. d. grs. 15,75: 10,494 10 9 10 2.24 Ans. 2. If 1 pint of wine cost 1,2s. what cost 12,5 hhes, ? Ans. £.873 3. If 4 yds. cost 3s. 44d. what will 305 yds. cost? Ans. £ 4s 4d 2gri † |