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SUBJECT XIX. METALLURGY.

EXAMINER, W. CHANDLER ROBERTS, F.R.S.

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS.

If the rules are not attended to, the paper will be cancelled.

You may take the Elementary, or the Advanced, or the Honours paper, but you must confine yourself to one of them.

Put the number of the question before your answer.

You are to confine your answers strictly to the questions proposed; answers extending beyond the scope of the questions are disregarded by the Examiner.

Your name is not given to the Examiner, and you are forbidden to write to him about your answers.

The examination in this subject lasts for three hours.

First Stage or Elementary Examination.

INSTRUCTIONS.

You are not to attempt more than eight questions in this paper.
The value attached to each question is the same.

1. Give the composition of dry wood as compared with that of bituminous coal and anthracite.

2. What is the essential difference between a reverberatory furnace and a blast furnace?

3. Give instances in which it would be possible to extract metals from their ores, (1) with, and (2) without the addition of other materials.

4. What is the difference between an acid and a basic material for lining metallurgical furnaces or appliances?

5. Describe the method of extracting silver from lead by cupellation on a large scale.

6. Why is it necessary to submit the rough mass of puddled iron to strong compression?

7. What reaction takes place when 'white metal' is converted into 'blister copper'?

8. How is impure tin refined?

9. If you had an alloy of 80 per cent. of gold and 20 per cent. of silver, what steps would you take in order to separate the gold completely, by the aid of nitric acid?

10. How would you extract metallic antimony from its sulphide? 11. What is supposed to happen when malleable iron is converted into steel by heating it to redness while surrounded with charcoal?

12. Give roughly the percentage composition of three of the following alloys: Standard silver, Muntz metal, type metal, Babbit's antifriction metal, and phosphor bronze'?

Second Stage or Advanced Examination.
INSTRUCTIONS.

Read the General Instructions at the head of the Elementary paper.
You are not to attempt more than eight questions in this paper.
The value attached to each question is the same.

21. The calorific power of hydrogen is 34,462, and its theoretical calorific intensity when burnt in oxygen is 6,743°C. What is the exact meaning of each of these statements?

22. Describe with the aid of a sketch the method of charcoal burning in piles, stating briefly the theory of the process.

23. Give the reaction that takes place when two equivalents of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) are heated with two equivalents of ferrous sulphide (FeS), and one equivalent of silica.

24. What are the relative advantages of using lime and limestone as a flux during the smelting of iron in the blast furnace?

25. What occurs when a bath of molten ferrous silicate and pig iron is exposed to the action of the air?

26. What gases escape from the blast furnace? Give their usual proportions and describe a method of taking off the gases from a closed-mouthed furnace.

27. Describe a method for extracting silver from an argentiferous copper regulus.

28. What is the action of metallic zinc on carbonic acid and of carbonic oxide on oxide of zinc at high temperatures?

29. What industrial uses are made of bismuth, cobalt, and arsenic ? 30. What methods have been proposed for the economic application of blast furnace slags ?

31. Give the composition of the principal alloys in industrial use that are composed of the following metals: either tin and copper or lead and tin.

32. Name the specimens submitted to you.

Honours Examination.

INSTRUCTIONS.

Read the General Instructions at the head of the Elementary paper.
You are not to attempt more than eight questions in this paper.
The value attached to each question is the same.

41. What circumstances render it impossible in practice to attain to the theoretical calorific intensity as deduced from the composition of a fuel?

42. If you had galena associated with either zinc blende or sulphate of barium, what means would you adopt in order to extract the lead? 43. What will be the effect of a mixture of equal volumes of carbonic anhydride and carbonic oxide on ferric oxide at a red heat, and how could the effect be modified?

44. Describe by the aid of a sketch the Ponsard converter-furnace, stating the advantages that may be claimed for it.

45. How are the physical properties of steel affected by the presence of phosphorus, manganese, sulphur, and silicon?

46. How would you prepare either silver or gold of a high degree of purity?

47. Explain fully the process of kernel roasting as practised at Agordo. 48. Describe the method devised by Cordurié for removing zinc from desilverised lead, giving a sketch of the apparatus.

49. Describe Fleitmann's, or any other method that has been adopted for rendering nickel ductile.

50. Describe with sketches any form of furnace recently adopted for the extraction of mercury from cinnabar.

51. Give the principal reactions that occur in the extraction of silver by amalgamation in pans.

52. Name and describe briefly the specimens submitted to you.

SUBJECT XX. NAVIGATION.

EXAMINER, JOSEPH WOOLLEY, Esa., LL.D.

GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS.

If the rules are not attended to, the paper will be cancelled.

You may take the Elementary, or the Advanced, or the Honours paper, but you must confine yourself to one of them.

In all cases the number of the question must be placed before the answer on the worked paper.

The value attached to each question is shown in brackets after the question. But a full and correct answer to an easy question will in all cases secure a larger number of marks than an incomplete or inexact answer to a more difficult one.

You are to confine your answers strictly to the questions proposed. Your name is not given to the Examiner, and you are forbidden to write to him about your answers.

The examination in this subject lasts for three hours.

First Stage or Elementary Examination.

INSTRUCTIONS.

You are only permitted to attempt eight questions, viz., four out of each of the sections into which the paper is divided.

SECTION I.

:

1. Define the following curves on the surface of a sphere great circles, small circles, rhumb curve. Draw a diagram representing a hemisphere of the earth with the North Pole in the centre, and illustrate your definitions upon it.

(12.)

2. What is the shortest distance between two places on the earth's surface? In navigation what is the technical meaning of the word "distance"? Give a description of the instrument by which the distance a ship runs is measured, explaining the principle and manner of using it.

(12.)

3. How does a mariner describe the direction in which his ship is sailing?

The N. of a compass card when on shore at Gravesend points N. b. W. W., when removed and placed on board a ship lying in the river it points N.N.W. W. Explain both indications, using the proper terms.

(12.) 4. Explain the method of finding the latitude and longitude of a ship's position from knowing a previous position, and the course and distance which the ship has sailed since.

(12.)

5. Show how you can resolve a traverse without the aid of the traverse table. If this can be done, what is the use of the table? (12)

6. Define departure. On what courses is the departure 0; and on what courses is it the same as the difference of latitude; and on what courses is it identical with the distance?

(12.)

SECTION II.

7. Find the course and distance from A to B, given—

Lat. A 0° 0′

Lat. B 8° 30′ S.

Long. A 0° 0°

Long. B 21° 12′ W.

(8.)

8. A ship sails along a parallel of 40° S. from long. 20° 10′ E., due east for 549 miles. Find the latitude and longitude in. (10.)

9. The position of the Eddystone Lighthouse is in lat. 50° 11' N., long. 4° 15′ W. Describe the position of a ship from which the lighthouse bears N.N.E. E. distant 20 miles. (10.)

10. Find the compass course and distance from a place near Cape Horn in lat. 56° S. long. 67° W. to Falkland Island lat. 51° 27′ S. long. 59° 56′ W.; variation 20° E., deviation 4° 10′ W. (14.) 11. A ship sails on a meridian from 5° N. to 5° S.; what distance has she run and what course has she steered by compass, the variation being 2 points W. and the deviation 5° 30′ E.?

(12.)

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Read the General Instructions at the head of the Elementary paper. You are permitted to attempt all or any of the questions.

21. Prove the formula

Diff. long. = Mer. diff. lat. X tan course.

Also prove that when a ship is sailing on a parallel of latitude-
Diff. long. dep. x sec. lat.

=

How can this expression be applied to the case where the ship changes her latitude ?

(25.)

22. By dead reckoning a ship was supposed to have sailed during the 24 hours 224 miles; but it was discovered that instead of the glass running out in 28s it took 29, and that the knot in the log-line was 1 foot shorter than it should have been. What was the true distance the ship had sailed?

The mile to be taken at 6,080 feet.

(20.) 23. Two steamers cross, one being on a west and the other on an east course, the former goes 12 and the latter 8 miles an hour; there is a north wind blowing at the rate of 10 miles an hour. What would be the apparent direction and force of the wind on board each steamer?

(25.) 24. Describe (1) the law, (2) the cause, and (3) the treatment of semicircular deviation. (25.) 25. Explain the method of reciprocal bearings for drawing up a table of deviations. (20.) 26. Find the compass course and distance by Mercator's sailing between Cape Clear (lat. 51° 25′ N., long. 9° 29′ W.) and Cape Finisterre (lat. 42° 54′ N., long. 9° 16′ W.). Variation 25° W., deviation 5° 50' E. (20.)

27. Write down a formula for finding the distance sailed from A to B on the great circle.

Is this use of the word distance the same as its use in rhumb

sailing?

If not, what is the distinction between the two?

(25.)

28. Feb. 9, 1882, at noon, Cape St. Vincent (lat. 37° 3′ N., long. 9° 0′ W.), bore by compass E. by N. distant 12 miles, ship's head being W.N.W. (deviation 2° 30′ E.); afterwards sailed as by the following log account. Find the lat. and long. in on Feb. 10, at

noon.

(40.)

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