# A Treatise on Land-surveying: Comprising the Theory Developed from Five Elementary Principles, and the Practice with the Chain Alone, the Compass, the Transit, the Theodolite, the Plane Table, Etc

D. Appleton, 1880 - Surveying - 524 pages

### Contents

 210 Principle 210 TRANSIT AND THEODOLITE SURVEYING 211 221 The Needle 221 nder each Problem only one or two of the simpler methods 225 PART VIII 271 MAPPING 316 CONVENTIONAL SIGNS 322
 PLANETABLE SURVEYING 422 500 Its object 424 335 347 851 4 353 48

### Popular passages

Page 133 - All the interior angles of any rectilineal figure, together with four right angles, are equal to twice as many right angles as the figure has sides.
Page 345 - ... northern ranges of sections or half sections in such township, according as the error may be in. running the lines from east to west, or from south to north.
Page 350 - President may prescribe, to cause the lands thus situated to be surveyed in tracts of two acres in width, fronting on any river, bayou, lake, or watercourse, and running back the depth of forty acres...
Page 352 - The precise relative position of islands, in a township made fractional by the river in which the same are situated, is to be determined trigonometrically — sighting to a flag or other fixed object on the island, from a special and carefully measured base line, connected with the surveyed lines, on or near the river bank, you are to form connection between the meander corners on the river to points corresponding thereto, in direct line, on the bank of the island, and there establish the proper...
Page 355 - Whenever bearing trees are not found, mounds of earth, or stone, are to be raised around posts on which the corners are to be marked in the manner aforesaid. Wherever a mound of earth is adopted, the same will present a conical shape; but at its base, on the earth's surface, a quadrangular trench will be dug; by the
Page 346 - ... (either of which would indicate an important error in the surveying), the lines must be retraced, even if found necessary to remeasure the meridional boundaries of the township (especially the western boundary), so as to discover and correct the error; in doing which, the true corners must be established and marked, and the false ones destroyed and obliterated, to prevent confusion in future ; and all the facts must be distinctly set forth in the notes.
Page 352 - A sufficient number of other trees standing within 50 links of the line, on either side of it, are to be blazed on two sides diagonally, or quartering toward the line, in order to render the line conspicuous, and readily to be traced, the blazes to be opposite each other, coinciding in direction with the line where the trees stand very near it, and to approach nearer each other the farther the line passes from the blazed trees. Due care must ever be taken to have the lines so well marked as to be...
Page 347 - E., and proceed as with townships situated " north and west," except that the random or trial lines will be run and measured west, and the true lines, east, throwing the excess over or deficiency under four hundred and eighty chains on the west end of the line, as required by law ; wherefore...
Page 135 - ... draw lines of direction along those streets, using two men as marks, or poles set in wooden pedestals, or perhaps some remarkable places in the houses at the farther ends, as windows, doors, corners...
Page 44 - Multiply the sum of the parallel sides by the perpendicular distance between them, and half the product will be the area.