Field Engineering: A Hand-book of the Theory and Practice of Railway Surveying, Location, and Construction, Designed for the Class-room, Field, and Office, and Containing a Large Number of Useful Tables, Original and Selected

Front Cover
J. Wiley & sons, 1880 - 503 pages
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Contents

SECTION
12
Leveller
13
Rodmen
14
The level
15
The clinometer
16
Transit points
17
Obstacles to alignment and measurement
18
General problem
19
Lines at a large angle
20
SECTION
24
B Location of Curves by Deflection Angles
52
Choice of routes
55
Field notes
58
Resistance due to grade
61
Train load reciprocals
67
Comparison of routes
75
Establishing grade lines
81
Central angle and length of curve
87
Formula for long chord C
93
Selection of angles 21
104
Transit work on curves
108
Do beginning with a subchord
114
Do beginning with a subchord
120
SECTION PAGE 173 To find a new P C C and last radius R for new direction of tangent through same P T
124
Erecting perpendiculars without instrument
126
To replace a simple curve by a threecentred compound curve between the same tangent points
127
To find the distance between the middle points of a simple curve and threecentred compound curve
129
To find the change in R and E for a given change in
132
To replace a tangent by a curve compounded with the adjacent curves
134
When the perpendicular offset p is assumed
136
When the angle a or ẞ is assumed
137
To find new P C and new radius for a parallel tangent
138
To find new tangent points for two parallel tangents
139
To replace the middle arc of a threecentred compound by an arc of different radius
140
When the radius of the middle arc is the least
141
When the radius of the middle arc is intermediate
142
To find new radius for a given radial offset
145
CHAPTER VII
147
Single turnout from straight track in terms of frog angle
148
Single turnout from straight track in terms of frog number
149
To find a line tangent to two curves
151
Double turnout middle track straight and three given frogs
152
Double turnout on same side of straight track to calculate the middle frog F
153
Double turnout on same side of straight track with three given frogs
155
Definition
157
b When the middle track is straight beyond F
158
When the middle track is reversed at F
159
Turnout on the inside of a curved track
161
AB VAB VBA and R2 to find A A and R₁
163
71
164
Tongue switch double turnout to find F
165
Tongue switch double turnout with three given frogs
166
Tongue switch double turnout on same side of straight track with three given frogs
167
b The middle track compounded at F
168
SECTION PAGE 193 To find the reversed curve for parallel siding in terms of Fand perpendicular distance p
169
To find the connecting curve from frog to parallel siding on a curve in terms of F and perpendicular distance p
170
a The siding outside of main track
171
To locate a crossing between parallel tracks
172
To locate a reversed curve crossing between straight tracks
173
To locate a reversed curve crossing between curved tracks
174
To find the middle ordinate m for one station in terms of D
175
Curving rails To find m₁ in terms of rail and m
176
To find elevation of outer rail on curves
177
Errors due to refraction
187
Levelling by transit or theodolite
188
To find the H I by observation of the horizon
189
Stadia measurements horizontal sights
191
Stadia measurements inclined sights vertical rod
193
Stadia measurements inclined sights inclined rod
195
CHAPTER IX
196
Clearing and grubbing
197
Cross sections formulŠ for
198
Cross sections staking out
200
Cross sections on irregular ground
201
Compound cross sections
203
Form of crosssection book
204
Extended cross profiles
205
Isolated masses
206
Officework
207
Drains and culverts
208
Arch culverts
209
Foundation pits Bridge chords on curves
210
Cattleguards
214
Location Alignment Shafts Curves Levels Grades Sections Rate of progress Ventilation Drain age
216
Retracing the line
222
Side ditches and drains
223
CHAPTER X
225
FormulŠ for sectional areas
227
Prismoidal formulŠ for solid contents
229
Tables of equivalent depths
231
Formula for equivalent depth in terms of slope angle
232
Conditions necessary for correct results in use of tables
233
Exact calculation of content examples
234
Special Problems in Compound Curves
235
Wedges and pyramids
236
Sidehill sections irregular ground
237
Systems of diagrams
238
Correction for curvature in earthwork
239
105
241
SRRER
243
Final estimate
245
271 Monthly estimates
246
SECTION PAGE
247
The theodolite
253
Geometrical Propositions 271
107
70
1
73
7
110
11
113
7
Curve FormulŠ 277
Middle Ordinates for Rails 304
12
Grades and Grade Angles 305
Barometric Heights in feet 307
Correction for Earths Curvature and Refraction 309
Coefficient for Reducing Stadia Measurements 310
Minutes in Decimals of a Degree 313
Inches in Decimals of a Foot 314
Squares Cubes Roots and Reciprocals 315
Rocky shores Tielines 22
22
System of plotting map 23
23
Logarithmic Versed Sines and External Secants 404
53
Natural Tangents and Cotangents 458
Natural Versed Sines and External Secants 470
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Page 239 - Haul. The cost of removing excavated material, when the distance does not exceed a certain specified limit, is included in the price per cubic yard of the material as measured in the cutting. But when the material must be carried beyond this limit, the extra distance is paid for at a stipulated price per cubic yard, per 100 feet. The extra distance is known by the name of haul...
Page 199 - Fig. 8, thus slightly changing the grade at and near the point of intersection. A vertical curve rarely need extend more than 200 feet each way from that point.
Page 256 - At the end of table XXIV. is a small table of logarithms of numbers from 1 to 100, with the characteristic prefixed, for easy reference when the given number does not exceed two digits. But the same mantissas may be found in the larger table. TABLE XXV.— The logarithmic sine, tangent, etc.
Page 254 - XXFV. contains the mantissas of logarithms, carried to six places of decimals, for numbers between 1 and 9999, inclusive. The first three figures of a number are given in the first column, the fourth at the top of the other columns. The first two figures of the mantissa are given only in the second column, but these are understood to apply to the remaining four figures in either column following, which are comprised between the same horizontal lines with the two.
Page 56 - Of mensuration, trigonometry, surveying, hydraulics, hydrostatics, instruments and their adjustments, strength of materials, masonry, principles of wooden and iron roof and bridge trusses, stone bridges and culverts, trestles, pillars, suspension bridges, dams, railroads, turnouts, turning platforms, water stations, cost of earthwork, foundations, retaining walls, etc.
Page 259 - Il — q, whence n is easily found. Find in the first column two consecutive quantities between which the number n falls, and if the degrees are read from the left hand side of the page, adopt the less, take out the minutes from the second column, and take for the seconds the difference between the quantity adopted and the number п.
Page 225 - A' = the areas at the two parallel ends, and M = the area of a section midway between the ends. This area is not a mean of the other two, but the linear dimensions of the mid-section are means of the corresponding dimensions severally of the end sections; from which therefore the area of the mid section may be computed.
Page 259 - Find in the proper column two consecutive logarithms between which the given logarithm falls. If the title of the given function is found at the top of that column read the degrees from the top of the page; if at the bottom read from the bottom. Find the value of (q...
Page 254 - ... of the calculation. By this rule we have Number. Logarithm. 1.384 0.141136 .1384 9.141136 .01384 8.141136 .001384 7.141136 etc. etc. No confusion need arise from this method in finding" a number from its logarithm; for although the logarithm 6.141136 represents either the number 1,384,000, or the decimal .0001384, yet these are so diverse in their values that we can never be uncertain in a given problem which to adopt.
Page 56 - Together with Directions for Estimating the Cost of Earthwork. By John C. Trautwine, CE Ninth edition, revised and enlarged by John C.

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