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FOR USE IN THE
COMMON SCHOOLS AND ACADEMIES
BY P. A. TOWNE,
FORMERLY GENERAL PRINCIPAL OF THE BARTON ACADEMY, MOBILE, Ala.
JOHN P. MORTON AND COMPANY,
HARVAND JOLLEGE LIBRARY
FER 12 1932
Entered, according to act of Congress, in the year 1867, by
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the
IN presenting this little volume to the teachers of the country, the author invites their attention to the following characteristics:
FIRST. The treatise is built up upon a single fundamental principle—that involved in expressing the number TEN by means of figures. All subsequent facts may be traced to this principle of Arabic notation.
SECOND. No special and favorite plan of investigation has been adopted to the exclusion of all others. Where, from the nature of the subject, the synthetic mode of conducting the pupil to a familiarity with a new principle has seemed proper. it has been adopted. Analysis and synthesis are correlative terms, and where one method is exemplified the other is generally involved. The sam observation is true of the "inductive and deduce processes." Neither can be avoided in any well-conducted investigation.
THIRD. NO RULE is given, except it be of an axio. matic nature, until by numerous synthetic or analytic recitations it must have been suggested to the mind of the pupil.
FOURTH. Since it is impossible for even a well-matured mind to understand a definition until something is known of the subject matter about which it is made, all appearance of formal definition of terms has been avoided where such formality would be worse than
useless. The teacher will find definitions, intended to be rigidly exact, in the Vocabulary of Arithmetical Terms, occupying the last four pages of the volume, and he is left to the exercise of his own judgment as to the proper time to have these committed to memory.
FIFTH. An entirely new feature in this work is exemplified in the MODEL RECITATIONS found on almost every page. These recitations, properly made, force the pupil into a thorough examination of every step in his progress. It is believed that teachers will quickly recognize their advantages over the old mode of "explanation," so commonly "skipped," both by teacher and pupil, in favor of the "Rule."
SIXTH. In connection with the METRICAL SYSTEM, tables for reducing the units now in use to the new have been given, thereby removing the necessity of making any "rules" whatever on that subject. By the aid of the equivalents given in the text the figures upon maps, charts, etc., can be rapidly changed, and the pupil made familiar with the new standards of measure and weight.
SEVENTH. As its name imports, this work is designed for the Intermediate and Junior Grammar Departments of our Public Schools, or for the corresponding grades in Private Schools. It treats exhaustively those subjects which lay a foundation for transacting the ordinary business of life. Should the pupil be compelled to end his school education with it, he will not be unprepared to apply his knowledge to a correct performance of the duties that may devolve upon him.
P. A. TOWNE
LOUISVILLE, KY., August 22, 1867.