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PROPOSITION IX. THEOREM.
Of four proportional quantities, if the two consequents be either augmented or diminished by quantities which have the same ratio as the antecedents, the resulting quantities and the antecedents will be proportional.
If any number of quantities are proportionals, any one antecedent will be to its consequent, as the sum of all the antecedents to the sum of the consequents.
MN: P: Q::R: S, &c. then will
M:N::P : Q, we have M×Q=N×P
and we have, M.N+M.Q+M.S=M.N+N.P+N.R
PROPOSITION XI. THEOREM.
If two magnitudes be each increased or diminished by like parts of each, the resulting quantities will have the same ratio as the magnitudes themselves.
Let M and N be any two magnitudes, and
parts of each: then will
For, it is obvious that M× (N±N) =N× (M±M) each is equal to M.N± N.M. Consequently, the four quan
tities are proportional (Prop. II.).
PROPOSITION XII. THEOREM.
If four quantities are proportional, their squares or cubes will
also be proportional.
M: NP: Q,
M2: N2 :: P2: Q2
For, MxQ=NxP, since MNP: Q
M2x Q2 N2x P2,
by squaring both numbers, and M3× Q3=N3× P3, by cubing both numbers; therefore, M2 N2: P2: Q2
Cor. In the same way it may be shown that like powers or roots of proportional quantities are proportionals.
PROPOSITION XIII. THEOREM.
If there be two sets of proportional quantities, the products of the corresponding terms will be proportional.
THE CIRCLE, AND THE MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES.
1. The circumference of a circle is a curved line, all the points of which are equally distant from a point within, called the centre.
The circle is the space terminated by A this curved line.*
2. Every straight line, CA, CE, CD, drawn from the centre to the circumference, is called a radius or semidiam
eter; every line which, like AB, passes through the centre, and is terminated on both sides by the circumference, is called a diameter.
From the definition of a circle, it follows that all the radii are equal; that all the diameters are equal also, and each double of the radius.
3. A portion of the circumference, such as FHG, is called
The chord, or subtense of an arc, is the straight line FG, which joins its two extremities.†
4. A segment is the surface or portion of a circle, included between an arc and its chord.
5. A sector is the part of the circle included between an arc DE, and the two radii CD, CE, drawn to the extremities of the arc.
6. A straight line is said to be inscribed in a circle, when its extremities are in the circumference, as AB.
An inscribed angle is one which, like BAC, has its vertex in the circumference, and is formed by two chords.
*Note. In common language, the circle is sometimes confounded with its circumference: but the correct expression may always be easily recurred to if we bear in mind that the circle is a surface which has length and breadth, while the circumference is but a line.
↑ Note. In all cases, the same chord FG belongs to two arcs, FGH, FEG, and consequently also to two segments: but the smaller one is always meant unless the contrary is expressed.
An inscribed triangle is one which, like BAC, has its three angular points in the circumference.
And, generally, an inscribed figure is one, of which all the angles have their vertices in the circumference. The circle is then said to circumscribe such a figure.
7. A secant is a line which meets the circumference in two points, and lies partly within and partly without the circle. AB is a secant. 8. A tangent is a line which has but one point in common with the circumference. CD is a tangent.
The point M, where the tangent touches the circumference, is called the point of contact.
In like manner, two circumferences touch each other when they have but one point in
9. A polygon is circumscribed about a circle, when all its sides are tangents to the circumference: in the same case, the circle is said to be inscribed in the polygon.
PROPOSITION I. THEOREM.
Every diameter divides the circle and its circumference into two equal parts.
Let AEDF be a circle, and AB a diameter. Now, if the figure AEB be applied to AFB, their common base AB retaining its position, the curve line AEB must fall exactly on the curve line AFB, otherwise there would, in the one or the other, be points unequally distant from the centre, which is contrary to the definition of a circle.
PROPOSITION II. THEOREM.
Every chord is less than the diameter.
Let AD be any chord.
Draw the radii CA, CD, to its extremities. We shall then
have AD<AC+CD (Book I. Prop. VII.*); A or AD<AB.
Cor. Hence the greatest line which can be inscribed in a circle is its diameter.
PROPOSITION III. THEOREM.
A straight line cannot meet the circumference of a circle in more than two points.
For, if it could meet it in three, those three points would be equally distant from the centre; and hence, there would be three equal straight lines drawn from the same point to the same straight line, which is impossible (Book 1. Prop. XV. Cor. 2.).
PROPOSITION IV. THEOREM.
In the same circle, or in equal circles, equal arcs are subtended by equal chords; and, conversely, equal chords subtend equal arcs.
Note. When reference is made from one proposition to another, in the same Book, the number of the proposition referred to is alone given; but when the proposition is found in a different Book, the number of the Book is also given.