## Surveying, land surveying, mapping, railroad location, railroad construction, track work, railroad structuresInternational Textbook Company, 1899 - Civil engineering |

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### Common terms and phrases

abutments ballast batter beam bearing bolts borrow pits braces bridge caisson caps center line central angle cents per cubic chains chord cofferdam contour contour lines contractor corner cost course cross-section cubic yard culvert depth diameter dimensions direction distance drills driven elevation embankment engineer equal excavation factor of safety fastened foot formula foundation frog gauge given grade guard-rails head height hole horizontal inches intersection joints laid latitudes and departures magnetic bearing main track marked masonry material measured meridian mile mortise and tenon notched parallel piles placed plat plumb-bob posts radius railroad right angles road rock scale shown in Fig side sills slope spikes square stakes station stone stringers surface survey switch switch rods thickness timber tion township trestle triangle tunnel turnout curve vertical wall wheel width yellow pine

### Popular passages

Page 601 - If two triangles have two sides, and the included angle of the one equal to two sides and the included angle of the other, each to each, the two triangles are equal in all respects.

Page 716 - K. The area of each trapezoid is equal to one-half the sum of its bases multiplied by its altitude, and the sum of their areas together with the area of the triangle is equivalent to the area of the polygon ABCDE F. In Fig. 318 a base line H Pis.

Page 602 - The supplement of an angle is the difference between that angle and two right angles. Thus, CBE is the supplement of DB E.

Page 695 - The sections and half sections bounded on the northern and western lines of such townships shall be sold as containing only the quantity expressed in the returns and plats, respectively, and all others as containing the complete legal quantity...

Page 695 - The law requires that the lines of the public surveys shall be governed by the true meridian, and that the townships shall be six miles square, — two things involving in connection a mathematical impossibility — for, strictly to conform to the meridian, necessarily throws the township out of square, by reason of the convergency of meridians...

Page 703 - At those points where either the township or section lines intersect the banks of a navigable stream, posts, or, where necessary, mounds of earth or stone are to be established at the time of running these lines. These are called

Page 703 - ... and to lay out the same into tracts as far as practicable, of fifty-eight poles in front and four hundred and sixty-five poles in depth, of such shape, and bounded by such lines as the nature of the country will render practicable, and most convenient: Provided however.

Page 705 - After a true coursing and most exact measurements, the corner boundary is the consummation of the work for which all the previous pains and expenditure have been incurred. A boundary corner in a timbered country is to be a tree, if one be found at the precise spot; and if not, a. post is to be planted thereat, and the position of the corner post is to be indicated by trees adjacent (called...

Page 705 - A sufficient number of other trees standing nearest to your line, on either side of it, are to be blazed on two sides, diagonally or quartering towards the line, in order to render the line conspicuous, and readily to be traced, the blazes to be opposite each other, coinciding in direction with the line where the trees stand very near it, and to approach nearer each other, the further the line passes from the blazed trees. Due care must ever be taken to have the lines so well marked as to be readily...

Page 611 - THE VARIATION OF THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE, (298) Definitions, The Magnetic Meridian is the direction indicated by the Magnetic Needle. The True Meridian is a true North and South line, which, if produced, would pass through the poles of the earth. The...