Elements of Mental Philosophy: Embracing the Two Departments of the Intellect and the Sensibilities, Volume 1

Front Cover
Harper & Brothers, 1857 - Ethics - 515 pages
 

Contents

CHAP IIIMMATERIALITY OF THE MIND 14 On the meaning of the terms material and immaterial
30
Difference between mind and matter shown from language 16 Their different nature shown by their respective properties
31
The souls immateriality indicated by the feeling of identity
32
The material doctrine makes a man a machine 19 No exact correspondence between the mental and bodily state
34
Evidence of this want of exact correspondence
35
Comparative state of the mind and body in dreaming
36
The great works of genius an evidence of immateriality
37
The doctrine of materiality inconsistent with future existence
39
LAWS OF BElief 24 Of belief its degrees and its sources 21
41
Memory and testimony considered as sources of belief
42
Objection to reliance on testimony
44
Of relative suggestion as a ground of belief
45
Of reasoning as a ground or law of belief
46
GENERAL CLASSIFICATION 30 The mind may be regarded in a threefold point of view
47
Evidence of the general arrangement from consciousness
48
Bection DIVISION FIRST THE INTELLECT OR UNDERSTANDING INTELLECTIVE OR INTELLECTUAL STATES OF THE MIND PART FIRS...
57
ORIGIN OF KNOWLEDGE IN GENERAL
59
Of the origin or beginnings of knowledge
60
Our first knowledge in general of a material or external origin
62
Further proof of the beginnings of knowledge from external causes
64
The same subject further illustrated Page 59 60 62 64
65
42
67
44
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45
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On the sensations of heat and cold
72
46
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47
74
SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 48 Sensation a simple mental state originating in the senses 49 All sensation is properly and truly in the mind
76
Evidence of the same from the terms found in different languages 50
78
ceptible of explanation 51 The connexion between the mental and physical change not sus 52 Of the meaning and nature of perception
80
Of the primary and secondary qualities of matter
81
Of the secondary qualities of matter
82
Further proof from various writers on the mind
83
THE SENSES OF SMELL AND taste 56 Nature and importance of the senses as a source of knowledge
84
Of the connexion of the brain with sensation and perception
85
Order in which the senses are to be considered
86
Of the sense and sensation of smell 60 Of perceptions of smell in distinction from sensations 61 Of the sense and sensation of taste
87
Design and uses of the senses of smell and taste
89
THE SENSE OF HEARING 63 Organ of the sense of hearing
90
Nature of sonorous bodies and the medium of the communication of sound
91
Varieties of the sensation of sound
92
Manner in which we learn the place of sounds
93
Application of these views to the art of ventriloquism
94
Uses of hearing and its connexion with oral language
96
THE SENSE OF TOUCH 69 Of the sense of touch and its sensations in general
97
Idea of externality suggested in connexion with the touch 76 76 78
98
Pago
99
of certain indefinite feelings sometimes ascribed to the touch
103
Relation between the sensation and what is outwardly signified
104
THE SENSE OF SIGHT 76 Of the organ of sight and the uses or benefits of that sense
105
Statement of the mode or process in visual perception
106
Of the original and acquired perceptions of sight
107
The idea of extension not originally from sight
108
80
109
81
111
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114
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86
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Of conceptions attended with a momentary belief
119
Conceptions which are joined with perceptions
120
Conceptions as connected with fictitious representations
121
87
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Doctrine of the nonexistence of matter considered
132
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97
134
HABITS OF SENSATION AND PERCEPTION 98 General view of the law of habit and of its applications
135
Of habit in relation to the smell
137
Of habit in relation to the taste
138
Of habit in relation to the hearing
140
Of certain universal habits based on sounds
142
Application of habit to the touch
143
Other striking instances of habits of touch
146
Habits considered in relation to the sight
147
Sensations may possess a relative as well as positive increase of
149
Of habits as modified by particular callings or arts
150
The law of habit considered in reference to the perception of the outlines and forms of objects 150
151
Notice of some facts which favour the above doctrine 110 Additional illustrations of Mr Stewarts doctrine 152
152
MUSCULAR HABITS 111 Instances in proof of the existence of muscular habits
154
Muscular habits regarded by some writers as involuntary
155
Objections to the doctrine of involuntary muscular habits
156
CONCEPTIONS 114 Meaning and characteristics of conceptions
158
Of conceptions of objects of sight
159
Of the influence of habit on our conceptions
161
Of the senses sinking to sleep in succession
166
General remarks on cases of somnambulism
167
Origin of the distinction of simple and complex
168
Nature and characteristics of simple mental states 124 Simple mental states not susceptible of definition 125 Simple mental states representative of a re...
169
Origin of complex notions and their relation to simple
171
Supposed complexness without the antecedence of simple feelings
172
The precise sense in which complexness is to be understood
173
Illustrations of analysis as applied to the mind
174
Complex notions of external origin
175
Of objects contemplated as wholes
176
Something more in external objects than mere attributes or
177
ABSTRACTION 134 Abstraction implied in the analysis of complex ideas
180
Instances of particular abstract ideas
181
Mental process in separating and abstracting them
182
Of generalizations of particular abstract mental states
183
Of the importance and uses of abstraction
184
GENERAL ABSTRACT IDEAS
185
Objection sometimes made to the existence of general notions
190
The power of general abstraction in connexion with numbers c
191
Of general abstract truths or principles 147 Of the speculations of philosophers and others
192
Of different opinions formerly prevailing
193
Of the opinions of the Realists
194
Of the opinions of the Nominalists 151 Of the opinions of the Conceptualists
195
Further remarks of Brown on general abstractions
197
OF ATTENTION 153 Of the general nature of attention
198
154
199
155
200
156
202
Alleged inability to command the attention
203
158
204
159
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Dreams are often caused by our sensations
206
161
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Second cause of the incoherency of dreams
208
Apparent reality of dreams 1st cause
209
Apparent reality of dreams 2d cause
210
Of our estimate of time in dreaming
211
VII Of relations of cause and effect
212
DIVISION FIRST THE INTELLECT OR UNDERSTANDING INTELLECTIVE OR INTELLECTUAL STATES OF THE NEXT PART SECOND TH...
219
Origin of the idea of externality
236
Idea of matter or material existence
237
Origin of the idea of motion
238
Of the nature of unity and the origin of that notion
239
Nature of succession and origin of the idea of succession
240
Origin of the notion of duration
241
Of time and its measurements and of eternity 186 Marks or characteristics of time 188 The idea of space has its origin in suggestion 187 The idea of s...
243
192
251
193
252
194
253
195
254
CONSCIOUSNESS 196 Consciousness the second source of internal knowledge its nature
256
197
257
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258
199
259
Of committing to writing as a means of aiding the memory
260
200
261
Occasions on which feelings of relation may arise
262
203
263
204
264
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207
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209
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210
270
211
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Of complex terms involving the relation of cause and effect 214 Remarks on instituted or conventional relations
273
Connexion of relative suggestion or judgment with reasoning
274
Reasons for considering this subject here
275
Meaning of association and illustrations
276
Of the general laws of association
277
Resemblance the first general law of association
278
Resemblance in every particular not necessary
279
Of resemblance in the effects produced
280
Contrast the second general or primary
281
Contiguity the third general or primary
282
Cause and effect the fourth primary
284
Secondary laws and their connexion with the primary
285
Of the influence of lapse of time
286
Secondary law of repetition or habit
287
Original difference in the mental constitution
289
Causes of increased vividness in these instances
294
Association sometimes misleads our judgments
295
Casual association in respect to the place of sensation
296
Connexion of our ideas of extension and time
297
Of high and low notes in music
298
Connexion of the ideas of extension and colour 295 296 297 298
299
Tendency of the mind to pass from the sign to the thing signified
301
Whether there be heat in fire
302
Benefit of examining such connexions of thought
304
Power of the will over mental associations
305
Association controlled by indirect voluntary power 244 Further illustrations of indirect voluntary power CHAP VIIIMEMORY 302 302
306
Remarks on the general nature of memory
309
Of philosophic memory or that species of memory which is based on other relations than those of contiguity
315
Further illustrations of philosophic memory
317
Of that species of memory called intentional recollection
318
Instance illustrative of the preceding
319
257
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329
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331
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333
Application of the principles of this chapter to education
337
First cause of permanently vivid conceptions or apparitions Morbid sensibility of the retina of the
338
Second cause of permanently excited conceptions or apparitions Neglect of periodical bloodletting Attacks of fever
339
Methods of relief adopted in this case
340
Third cause of excited conceptions
341
Fourth cause of apparitions and other excited conceptions In flammation of the brain
342
Process of the mind in all cases of reasoning
344
Meaning of the term and kinds of insanity
345
Of disordered or alienated sensations
346
Of disordered or alienated external perception
347
Disordered state or insanity of original suggestion
348
Unsoundness or insanity of consciousness
349
Of reasoning priori
350
Disordered or alienated association
351
Illustrations of this mental disorder
352
Of partial insanity or alienation of the memory
353
Of the power of reasoning in the partially insane
354
Instance of the above form of disordered reasoning
355
DEMONSTRATIVE REASONING
356
Partial mental alienation by means of the imagination
357
Insanity or alienation of the power of belief
358
Of the influence of demonstrative reasoning on the mental char
362
Of reasoning by induction
368
Care to be used in correctly stating the subject of discussion
374
Consider the kind of evidence applicable to the subject
375
Reject the aid of false arguments or sophisms
376
Fallacia equivocationis or the use of equivocal terms and phrases
378
On the sophism of estimating actions and character from the cir cumstances of success merely
379
Of adherence to our opinions
380
Effec s on the mind of debating for victory instead of truth
381
IMAGINATION 306 Imagination an intellectual process closely related to reasoning
383
Definition of the power of imagination
384
Process of the mind in the creations of the imagination
385
Further remarks on the same subject
386
Of differences in the strength of memory 248 Of circumstantial memory or that species of memory which is based on the relations of contiguity in ti...
387
312
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Works of imagination give different degrees of pleasure
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Feelings of sympathy aided by the imagination
398
COMPLEX IDEAS OF INTERNAL ORIGIN 321 Of complex ideas of external origin
399
Nature of complex ideas of internal origin 398 399
400
Of the help afforded by names in the combination of numbers
401
Instances of complex notions made up of different simple ideas
402
Not the same internal complex ideas in all languages
404
Origin of the complex notion of a Supreme Being
406
Section DIVISION FIRST THE INTELLECT OR UNDERSTANDING INTELLECTIVE OR INTELLECTUAL STATES OF THE MIND PART THI...
409
CONNEXION OF THE MIND AND BODY 411 328 Disordered intellectual action connected with the body
411
The mind constituted on the principle of a connexion with the body
412
Illustration of the subject from the effects of old
413
The connexion of the bodily system with the mental shown from the effects resulting from diseases
414
Shown also from the effects of stimulating drugs and gases
415
Influence on the body of excited imagination and passion
416
This doctrine of use in explaining mental phenomena
417
EXCITED CONCEPTIONS OR APPARITIONS 335 Of excited conceptions and of apparitions in general
418
Of the less permanent excited conceptions of sight
419
Of the less permanent excited conceptions of sound
421
437
437
Idea of total insanity or delirium
446
Of perception in cases of total or delirious insanity 361 Of association in delirious insanity 362 Illustration of the above section 446 447
447
451
451
Of moral accountability in mental alienation
452
Of the imputation of insanity to individuals
453
Of the treatment of the insane
454

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Page 420 - Me oft has fancy ludicrous and wild Soothed with a waking dream of houses, towers, Trees, churches, and strange visages, expressed In the red cinders, while with poring eye I gazed, myself creating what I saw.
Page 222 - The other fountain from which experience furnisheth the understanding with ideas, is the perception of the operations of our own mind within us, as it is employed about the ideas it has got ; which operations, when the soul comes to reflect on and consider, do furnish the understanding with another set of ideas, which could not be had from things without ; and such are perception, thinking, doubting, believing, reasoning, knowing...
Page 398 - Must kings neglect that private men enjoy! And what have kings that privates have not too, Save ceremony— save general ceremony?
Page 222 - This source of ideas every man has wholly in himself; and though it be not sense, as having nothing to do with external objects, yet it is very like it, and might properly enough be called internal sense...
Page 279 - How soft the music of those village bells, Falling at intervals upon the ear In cadence sweet ! now dying all away, Now pealing loud again, and louder still, Clear and sonorous, as the gale comes on.
Page 201 - The crow doth sing as sweetly as the lark, When neither is attended ; and, I think The nightingale, if she should sing by day, When every goose is cackling, would be thought No better a musician than the wren.
Page 394 - He was passionately fond of the beauties of nature ; and I recollect once he told me, when I was admiring a distant prospect in one of our morning walks, that the sight of so many smoking cottages gave a pleasure to his mind, which none could understand who had not witnessed, like himself, the happiness and the worth which they contained.
Page 140 - Could the youth, to whom the flavour of his first wine is delicious as the opening scenes of life, or the entering upon some newly-dis- . covered paradise, look into my desolation, and be made to understand what a dreary thing it is when a man shall feel himself going down a precipice with open eyes and a passive will...
Page 291 - To behold the wandering moon, Riding near her highest noon, Like one that had been led astray Through the...
Page 291 - Where the great Sun begins his state Robed in flames and amber light, The clouds in thousand liveries dight; While the ploughman, near at hand, Whistles o'er the furrowed land, And the milkmaid singeth blithe, And the mower whets his scythe, And every shepherd tells his tale Under the hawthorn in the dale.

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