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DOUGLAS (Gawin), a Scotch poet and bishop, was the younger son of the sixth earl of Angus, and born at Brechin in 1471. After going through his academical studies, he went to Italy, where he acquired a taste for poetry. On his return to his own country he obtained some ecclesiastical preferment, and in 1515 the bishopric of Dunkeld. He had afterwards the rich abbey of Aberbrothic added to his bishopric. He died at London in 1522. His works are: 1. A Translation of Virgil's Æneis. 2. The Palace of Honour, a poem. 3. Aurea Narrationes, Comediæ aliquot Sacræ. 4. De Rebus Scoticis Liber.

DOUGLAS, a seaport of the Isle of Man, having the best harbour in the island, and the best mart for trade. It is a populous, improving town, and has an ancient fort near the harbour. Lat. 54. 12 N. Lon. 4. 20 W. DOUGHTY. a. (dohrig, Saxon.) Brave; noble; illustrious; eminent (Spenser). This word is now commonly used ironically. DOUGHY. a. (from dough.) Unsound; soft; unhardened (Shakspeare).

DOURLACH, a town of Suabia, capital of Baden-dourlach. Lat. 49. 2 N. Lon. 9. 28 E.

DOURO, a river which rises in Old Castile, in Spain, and running across Portugal, falls into the Atlantic, a little below Porto.

DOUSA (James), a learned Dutchman, born in 1545. He became eminent both as a scholar and as a soldier, and obtained in 1574 the government of Leyden. The year following a university was founded there, and Dousa made the first curator. He died in 1604. His son James, born in 1572, distinguished himself while a mere child, by his Latin poems. He also wrote notes upon Plautus, and at the age of 16 published his book, De Rebus Celistibus, and his Panegyric on a Shadow. He became tator to the prince of Orange, and librarian of the university of Leyden. He died in 1597. (Watkins).

To DOUSE. v. a. (dusic.) To put over head suddenly in the water.

To DOUSE. v. n. To fall suddenly into the water (Hudibras).

DOM (Gerard), an eminent painter, born at Leyden, in 1613. He was the disciple of Rembrand, and acquired uncommon excellence in painting in miniature; and his pictures are so exquisitely touched, so transparent, and so wonderfully delicate, as to excite astoDishment as well as pleasure. He died in 1674. (Watkins)

DOWAGER. (douairiere, French.) 1. A widow with a jointure (Shakspeare). 2. The title given to ladies who survive their husbands Shakspeare).

DOWDY. s. An awkward, ill-dressed, inelegant woman (Shakspeare).

DOWER DO'WERY. s. (douaire, Fr.) 1. That which the wife brings to her husband in marriage (Pope). 2. That which the widow possesses (Bacon). 3. The gifts of a husband for a wife (Genesis). 4. Endowment; gift (Davies).

DOWER, the portion which a widow hath of the lands of her husband, after his decease, for the sustenance of herself, and the education of her children.

DOWER BY THE COMMON LAW, is a third part of such lands or tenements whereof the husband was sole seised in fee-simple, or feetail, during the marriage, which the wife is to enjoy during her life; for which there lies a writ of dower. DOWER BY CUSTOM. This kind of dower varies according to the custom and usage of the place, and is to be governed accordingly; and where such custom prevails, the wife cannot wave the provision thereby made for her, and claim her thirds at common law, because all customs are equally ancient with the common law itself.

DOWER AD OSTIUM ECCLESIÆ, is where a man of full age, seised of lands in fee, after marriage, endows his wife at the church door of a moiety, a third, or other part of his lands, declaring them in certainty; in which case, after her husband's death, she may enter into such lands without any other assignment, because the solemn assignment at the church door is equivalent to the assignment in pais by metes and bounds; but this assignment cannot be made before marriage, because before she is not entitled to the dower.

DOWER EX ASSENSU PATRIS, is where the father is seised of lands in fee; and his son and heir apparent after marriage endows his wife by his father's assent, ad ostium ecclesiæ, of a certain quantity of them; in which case after the death of the son, his wife may enter into such parcel without any other assignment, though the father be living; but this assent of the father's must be by deed, because his estate is to be charged in futuro, and this may likewise be of more than a third part.

The dowers ad ostium ecclesiæ, or ex assensu patris, if the wife enter and assent to them, are a good bar of her in the common law; but she may, if she will, wave them, and claim her dower at common law, because being made after marriage, she is not bound by


DO/WERED. a. (from dower.) Portioned; supplied with a portion (Shakspeare). DOWERLESS. a. (from dower.) Wanting a fortune; unportioned (Shakspeare).

DOWLAS. s. A coarse kind of linen (Shakspeare).

DOW LATABAD, formerly called Amednagur, a province of the Deccan of Hindustan ; bounded by Candeish, Malvay, the Gauts, Visiapour, Golconda, and Berar. DOWLATABAD, a fortress of the Deccan of Hindustan. Lat. 19. 55 N. Lon. 76.

0 E.

DOWLE and DEAL, in our old writers, are used to denote a division, or parting.

DOWN. s. (duun, Danish.) 1. Soft feathers (Wotton). 2. Any thing that soothes or mollifies (Southern). 3. Soft wool, or tender hair (Prior). 4. The soft fibres of plants which wing the seed (Bacon).

Down. s. (un, Saxon.) A large open plain; a flat on the top of a hill (Pope).

Down, in botany, is properly the English term for some sorts of pubescence; but it is used also for the pappus or little crown fixed on the top of some seeds, by which they fly: as dandelion, thistle, &c. This is, 1. feathered or plumose; or else, 2. capillary, hairy or simple. Some of these crowns are stiped, others sessile. Down ought not to be used in both senses. Pappus cannot well make an English substantive, though pappous may be employed as an adjective. Feather is not proper, for we cannot sav, a feathered feather, and a hairy feather Seed-down will distinguish it from pubescence. See PAPPUS.

Down, a county of Ireland, 42 miles long, and 34 broad, having St. George's Channel on the E. Armagh on the W. Antrim on the N. and N.W. and the Ocean on the S. It sends 14 members to parliament; and is fertile, though encumbered with bogs.

Down the capital of the above county, remarkable for the tomb of St. Patrick. Lat. 54. 29 N. Lon. 5 42 W.

Dow N. prep. (aduna, Saxon.) 1. Along a descent; from a higher place to a lower (Shakspeare). 2. Toward the mouth of a river (Knolles).

Down. ad. Not up. 1. On the ground (Milton). 2. Tending toward the ground. 3. From former to latter times. 4. Out of sight; below the horizon (Shakspeare). 5. To a total subjection (Arbuthnot). 6. Into disgrace (South).

Down. interject. 1. An exhortation to destruction or demolition (Dryden). 2. A contemptuou threat (Shakspeare).

DowN. (To go.) To be digested; to be received (Locke).

To Down. v. a. (from the participle.) To knock; to subdue; to conquer (Sidney). DOWNCAST. a. (down and cast.) Bent down; directed to the ground (Addison).


DOWNFALL. s. (down and fall.) Ruin; fall from rank or state (South). 2. A body of things falling (Dryden). 3. Destruction of fabrics (Dryden).

DOWNFALLEN. part. a. (down and fall.) Ruined fallen (Carew).

DOWNGYRED. a. (down and gyre.) Let down in circular wrinkles (Shakspeare).

DOWNHAM, a town of Norfolk, with a market on Saturdays. This town is famous for its butter. Lat. 52. 40 N. Lon. 0.

20 E.



s. Declivity; descent

Do'WNHILL. a. Declivous; descending (Con.).

DOWNLOOKED. a. (down and look.) Having a dejected countenance; gloomy; sullen; melancholy (Dryden).

DOWNLYING. a. (down and lie.) About to be in travail of childbirth.

DO'WNRIGHT. ad. (down and right.) 1. Straight or right down (Hudibras). 2. In plun terns; without ceremony (Shakspeare).

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DOWNS, a bank or elevation of sand, which the sea gathers and forms along its shores; and which serves it as a barrier. The word is formed from the French dune, of the Celtic dum, a "mountain."

Downs are particularly used for a famous road for ships along the eastern coast of the county of Kent, from Dover to the North Foreland; where both the outward and homeward-bound ships frequently make some stay ; and squadrons of men of war rendezvous in time of war. It affords excellent anchorage; and is defended by the castles of Deal; Dover, and Sandwich.

DOWNSITTING. s. (down and sit.) Rest; repose; the act of sitting down (Psalm).

DOWNTON, a borough in Wiltshire, with a market on Fridays. It is governed by a mayor, and sends two members to parlia Lat. 51.0 N. Lon. 1. 36 W. DOWNWARD. Do'WNWARDS. (Sunepeand, Saxon.)


ad. 1. Toward the centre (Newton). 2. From a higher situation to a lower (Milton). 3. In a course of successive or lineal descent (Shakspeare).

Do'wNWARD. a. 1. Moving on a declivity; tending toward the centre; tending to the ground (Dryden). 2. Declivous; bending (Dryden). 3. Depressed; dejected (Sidney).

DOWNY. a. (from down.) 1. Covered with down or nap (Shakspeare). 2. Made of down or soft feathers (Dryden). 3. Soft ; tender; soothing (Crashaw).

DOWNY-LEAF, in botany. See TOMEN


DO'WRE. Do'wRY. s. (douaire, French. It ought to be written dower.) 1. A portion given with a wife (Sidney). 2. A reward paid for a wife (Cowley). See DOWER.

DOXOLOGY, an appellation given by the Greeks to the fourteenth verse of the second chapter of St. Luke, Glory be to God in the highest, &c. because beginning with the Greek word sža, glory.

This they distinguish by the name of great dovology; and the Gloria Patria, Glory be to the Father, they call the less doxology, as beginning with the same word da.

Philostorgius, lib, iii. n. 13. gives three furmulas of the lesser doxology. The first is Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost; the second, Glory be to the Father, by the Son, in the Holy Ghost; and the third, Glory be to the Father, in the Son, and the Holy Ghost. Sozomen, and Nicephorus, give a fourth; viz. Glory be to the Father, and the Son, in the Holy Ghost. The first of these doxologies is that in common use throughout the western church. It was first instituted about the year 350, by the Catholics of Antioch, then called Eustathians.


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The three others were composed by the Arians: the second was that of Ennomius, and Eudoxus, and was approved by Philostorgius. The three were all made about the year 341, in the council of Antioch, when they first began to disagree among themselves.

There were anciently very great disputes, and principally at Antioch, as to the form of doxology; that mostly used among the orthodox was the same as still obtains; the rest were affected by the Arians, and other Antitrinitarians; yet St. Basil, in his book on the Holy Spirit, defends the second as orthodox, and legitimate; and it is certainly more agree able to Scripture authority; to which we must ultimately appeal, as the only infallible rule of our devotion, as well as of our conduct: and it has been urged, that no instance of the former dorology occurs in the New Testament.

DO'XY. s. (doža, praise or glory, used ironically.) A whore; a loose wench (Shakspeare).

To DOZE. v. n. (opær, Sax. daes, Dutch.) 1. To slumber; to sleep lightly (L'Estrange). 2. To be half asleep (Pope).

To Doze. v. a. To stupify; to dull (ClaTendon).

DOʻZEN. s. (douzaine, French.) The number of twelve (Raleigh).

DOʻZINESS. s. Sleepiness; drowsiness (Locke).

DOʻZY. a. (from doze.) Sleepy; drowsy; sluggish (Dryden).

DRAB. s. (nabbe, Saxon, lees.) A whore; a strumpet (Pope).

DRABA. Whitlow-grass. In botany, a genus of the class tetradynamia, order siliculosa. Silicle entire, oval-oblong, with flattish valves parallel to the partition; generally style-less. Sixteen species, some leafy, others leafless in their stems; chiefly natives of the South of Europe, but three or four indigenous to our own country; of these, the most common is D. verna, found wild on old walls, with naked stalks; lanceolate, hairy, slightly serrated leaves; and cloven petals. The blossoms are white, and hang down towards the evening. It flowers very early in the spring, and is eaten by horses, sheep, and goats; not relished by cows, and refused by swine. There is a more elegant species described by Dr. Turton, under the name of D. aizoides, found by himself on the maritime rocks of Gower, with yellow flowers in a terminal raceme, petals rounded, emarginate, twice as long as the calyx; and pale green imbricate leaves.

DRABS, in the English salt-works, a name given to a sort of wooden cases, into which the salt is put as soon as it is taken out of the boiling-pan. See SALT-WORKS.

DRACHM, a Grecian coin of the value of seven-pence three farthings. This was also the name of a kind of weight, consisting of three scruples, and each scruple of two oboli. As to the proportion that the drachm of the Greeks bore with the ounce of the Romans, Q. Remnius, in his poem of weights and measures, makes the drachm the eighth part of an

ounce, not much different from the crown of the Arabians, which weighs something more than the drachm.

DRACHM, or DRA'CHMA, (deaxun, fron dearloma, to grasp, it being about a handful, or much rather, perhaps, from the Hebrew 7, drachmin.) A drachm. The eighth part of an ounce, containing three scruples or sixty grains.

DRACO, a celebrated lawgiver of Athens. When he exercised the office of archon, he made a code of laws for the use of his citizens, which, on account of their severity, were said to be written in letters of blood. By them idleness was punished with as much severity as murder, and death was denounced against the one as well as the other. Solon totally abolished these sanguinary laws, except that one which punished a murderer with death. The popularity of Draco was uncommon, but the gratitude of his admirers proved fatal to him. Once when he appeared on the theatre, he was received with repeated applause; and the people, according to the custom of the Athenians, showed their respect to their lawgiver by throwing garments upon him. This was done in such profusion, that Draco was soon hid under them, and smothered by the too great veneration of his citizens. He lived about 624 years before the Christian era.

DRACO, in astronomy, the dragon, an old constellation of the northern hemisphere. It consists of 77 stars of the 1st six magnitudes, i. e. 0. 4. 7. 11. 23. 32.

DRA'CO, in zoology, a genus of the class amphibia, order reptilia. Body four-footed, tailed and winged. One species only:

D. volans. Flying dragon. Forelegs distinct front the wings: body ash colour, varied and clouded with brown and whitish, and covered with minute scales; gular pouch large, pointed; tail very long, annulate with whitish brown. Inhabits Africa and India: is distinguished from the lizard tribe merely by having a broad, lateral membrane, strengthened by radii or bony processes: wanders about trees, and is able, by means of the membrane, to spring from bough to bough, and support itself, for a few moments, in the air: feeds on insects. Length of the body about four inches of the tail eight. It is in every respect a harmless and inoffensive animal, and in its very limited power of flying resembles the flying squirrel or the bat.

Linnéus has mentioned d. præpos as a second species on the authoriiy of Seba: but Seba is the only naturalist who has seen this second species: and it is now generally conceived that what Seba thus delineated and Linnéus thus arranged is only a variety of d. volans. It may not be impertinent to adjoin that the tremendous dragons of ancient poets, and those actually figured in the works of some of the older naturalists, are mere fictitious beings, either artificially composed of the members or skins of different animals; or made by warping some particular species of the ray or skate tribe into a dragon-like shape, by ex

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