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mortal; but immortalized actually by the pleasure of God, to punishment or reward, by its anion with the divine baptismal spirit. Wherein is proved that none have the power of giving this divine immortalizing spirit, since the apostles, but only the bishops, 1706, 8vo. This book occasioned a sharp controversy, and several able writers, as Dr. Clarke, Mr. Norris, and others, wrote expressly against it; but Mr. Dodwell attempted a sort of vindication of his notion in three treatises. 3. Julii Vitalis Epitaphium, cum Notis Henrici Dodwelli, et Commentario G. Musgrave, 1711, 8vo. &c.

DOE. In natural history. (See CERVUS.) The female of the fallow deer, bred in parks: the male of which is called a buck, and the young (of which she produces but one annually) a fawn. Doe venison is not equal in estimation with buck venison, either in fat or flavour; nor is it in season till the latter has declined: this happens at the beginning of autumn, when the copulating or rutting time approaches. Fawns are killed for the table at three months old, consequently are fit for eaving towards the latter end of August, and the beginning of Sep


Doɛ. s. (from to do.) A feat; what one has to do what one can perform (Huditras).

DO'ER. s. (from to do.) 1. One that does any thing good or bad (South). 2. Actor; agent (Hooker). 3. Performer (Sidney). 4. An active, or busy, or valiant person (Knolles). 5. One that habitually performs or practises (Hooker).

DOES. The third person from do, for doth. To DOFF. v. a. (from do off) 1. To put off dress (Milton. Dryden). 2. To strip; to divest of any thing (Crashaw). 3. To put away; to get rid of (Shakspeare). 4. To shift off; to delay (Shakspeare).

DOFRINE MOUNTAINS, or DOFRE FIELD, the highest mountains of Norway: they divide that kingdom from Sweden.

DOG. s. (dogghe, Dutch.) 1. A domestic animal remarkably various in its species. (See CANIS.) 2. A reproachful name for a man (Sackspeare). 3. To give or send to the Dogs; to throw away. To go to the DoGs; to be ruined, destroyed, or devoured. 4. It is used as the term for the male of several species; as, the dog fox, the dog otter.

To DOG. v. a. To hunt, as a dog, insidiously and indefatigably (Herbert).

DOG, in astronomy. See CANIS MAJOR and MINOR, and SIRIUS.

DOG-FISH, in ichthyology. See SQUA-

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the root of Indian cassava or jatropa manihot of Linnéus, which, in its natural state, is a most fatal poison, may be safely eaten after having been submitted to the same culinary operation.


DOG-BERRY, in botany. See CORNUS.



DOG-ROSE. See Rosa.




DOGADO, a province of the late Venetian states, in which is the capital. It is bounded on the E. by the Gulf of Venice, on the S. by Palesino, on the W. by Paduano, and on the N. by Trevisano. It comprehends inany small islands near it, called the Lagunes of Venice.

DO'GCHEAP. a. (dog and cheap.) Cheap as dogs meat (Dryden).

DOGE, the chief magistrate of the republics of Venice and Genoa. The word properly signifies duke, being formed from the Latin dux, as dogate, and dogado, from ducatus, duchy. The dogate, or office and dignity of doge, is elective: at Venice, the doge is elected for life; at Genoa, only for two years he is addressed under the title of Serenity, which among the Venetians is superior to that of highness.

The doge of Venice, however, is no more than the shadow of a prince; all the authority being reserved to the republic. Anciently indeed the doges were sovereigns; but at present it is far otherwise. The doge indeed gives audience to ambassadors; but does not give them any answer for himself in matters of any importance; only he is allowed to answer according to his own pleasure, to the compliments they make to the signiory; such answers being of no consequence. The doge, as being first magistrate, presides in all the councils; and the credentials which the senate furnishes its ministers in foreign courts are written in his name. He does not sign them, however; but a secretary of state signs them, and seals them with the arms of the republic. The ambassadors direct their dispatches to the doge; and yet he must not open them but in presence of the counsellors.

DO'GGED. a. (from dog.) Sullen; sour; morose; ill-humoured; gloomy (Hudibras). DO'GGEDLY. ad. Sullenly; gloomily;


DOGGEDNESS. s. (from dogged.) Gloom of mind; sullenness; moroseness.

DOGGER, a small ship, built after the Dutch fashion, with a narrow stern, and two masts; viz. a main-mast, and a mizen-mast, principally used in fishing on the Dogger bank.

DOGGER BANK, a very extensive sand bank in the German ocean, between the coast of England and Germany.

DOGGEREL. a. (from dog.) Vile; despicable; mean: used of verses (Dryden).

DO'GGEREL. S. Mean, despicable, worthless verses (Swift).


DO'GGISII. a. (from dog.) Currish; bru

DO'GHEARTED. a. (dog and heart.) Cruel; pitiless; malicious (Shakspeare).

DO'GHOLE. s. (dog and hole.) A vile hole; a mean habitation (Pope).

DO'GKENNEL. s. (dog and kennel.) A little hut or house for dogs (Tatler).

DO'GLOUSE. s. (dog and louse.) An insect that harbours on dogs.

DOGMA, soyua, a maxim, tenet, settled proposition, or principle; particularly in matters of religion, or philosophy.

DOGMATICAL, something relating to a doctrine, or opinion.

In common use, a dogmatical philosopher is such an one as asserts every thing positively; in opposition to a sceptic, who doubts of every thing.

A dogmatical physician is he, who, on the principles of the school philosophy, rejects all medicinal virtues not reducible to inanifest qualities.

DOGMATICI, DOGMATISTS, a sect of ancient physicians, called also logici, logicians, from their using the rules of logic and reason, in subjects of their profession.

They laid down definitions, and divisions, reducing diseases to certain genera, those genera to species, and furnishing remedies for them all; supposing principles, drawing conse quences, and applying those principles and consequences to the particular diseases under consideration. In which sense the dogmatists stand contradistinguished to empirics, and methodists.

DOGMATICALLY. ad. (from dogmatical.) Magisterially; positively (South).

DOGMATICALNESS. s. (from dogmatical.) Magisterialness; mock authority.

DO'GMATIST. s. (dogmatiste, French.) A magisterial teacher; a positive assertor; a bold advancer of principles (Watts).

To DO'GMATIZE. v. n. (from dogma.) To assert positively; to advance without distrust; to teach magisterially (Blackmore). DOGMATIZER. s. (from dogmatize.) An assertor; a magisterial teacher (Hammond). DO'GSLEEP. s. (dog and sleep.) Pretended sleep (Addison).

DO'GSMEAT. s. (dog and meat.) Refuse; vile stuff (Dryden).

DOGSTAR. s. (dog and star.) The star which gives name to the dogdays. See S1

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DOIT. s. (duyt, Dutch.) A small piece of money (Shakspeare).

DOLABRIFORM. (dolabra. an axe, a dolando.) In botany, an axe or hatchet-shaped leaf. Battledore-shaped. Compressed, roundish, obtuse, gibbous on the outside with a sharp edge, roundish below. As in mesembryanthemum dolabriforme.

DOLABRUM, a knife used in the Roman


DOLCE, a musical term, from the Italian, denoting that the passage over which it is placed is to be sung or played in a soft and sweet style.

DOLCIGNO, an episcopal town of Albania, in European Turkey. Lat. 42. 12 N. Lon. 19. 20 E.

DOLE. s. (from deal, dælan, Saxon.) 1. The act of distribution or dealing (Cleavel.). 2. Any thing dealt out or distributed (Hudib.). 3. Provisions or money distributed in charity (Dryden). 4. Blows dealt out (Milion). 5. (from dolor, Lat.) Grief; sorrow (Shakspeare), To DOLE. v. a. (from the noun.) To deal; to distribute.

DOLE, in the Saxon and British tongues, signified a part or portion, most commonly of a meadow, where several had shares. It also still signifies a distribution or dealing of alms, or a liberal gift made by a great man to the people.

DOLL, in the laws of Scotland, is used for a malevolent intention. It is essential to the criminality of an action.

DO'LEFUL. a. (dole and full.) 1. Sorrowful; expressing grief (South). 2. Melancholy; feeling grief (Sidney). 3. Dismal; impressing sorrow (Hooker).

DO LEFULLY. ad. In a doleful manner; sorrowfully; dismally; querulously.

DO'LEFULNESS. s. 1. Sorrow; melancholy. 2. Querulousness. 3. Dismalness. DO'LESOME. a. (from dole.) Melancholy; gloomy; dismal; sorrowful (Pope). DOLESOMELY. ad. In a dolesome man

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DOLGELHEW, or DOLGELLY, a town of Merionethshire, in North Wales, having a market on Tuesdays. It is seated at the foot of the great rock Cader Idris. Lat. 52. 42 N. Lon. 9. 48 W. This town contains 658 houses, and 2950 inhabitants.

DOLICHOS, in antiquity, according to Suidas, signifies a race or course of 12 stadia, or of 24.

DOLICHOS. Cowhage. In botany, a ge nus of the class diadelphia, order decandria; banner with two parallel, oblong callosities at the base, compressing the wings underneath, Fifty-three species; natives of the East or West Indies, or the Cape, which may be thus subarranged:

A. Twining. B. Erect.

C. Doubtful.

The following are the chief;

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1. D. lablab. Twining: legumes ovate, scymitar-shaped; seeds ovate, with a curved eye towards one end. A beautiful climbing shrub, and largely cultivated in the gardens of Egypt for the purpose of making bowers and arbours, on account of the excellent shade afforded by its leaves. See Botany, Pl. LXXXV. 2. D. soja. Soy cowhage. Called by the Japonese daidsu or the pod-flower by way of eminence, on account of its beauty. Stem erect, flexuous, racemes axillary, erect; legumes pendulous, bristly, about two-seeded. This plant is also highly valued by the Japonese for its culinary purposes: their cooks obtaining from it a kind of butter which they terin miso, and a pickle called sooja, whence the present specific name; this is obtained from the seeds, and is known among ourselves under the name of soy.

3. D. pruriens. Itching cowhage, or com mon cowitch. Twining; legumes racemed; the valves slightly carinate and hairy; peduncles three together. The hairs upon this and several other species, as d. ureus, produce a pungent itching smart, if handled or blown upon the skin by a slight breeze. These hairs grow upon the leaves which are covered with them; the legumes are compressed, influted at the base and reflected at the tip like an Italian The flowers of this plant are very beautiful, and would more frequently be cultivated were it not for the troublesome property of its leafhairs. It flowers in the cooler months of the year; generally from September to March. The spicule or leaf-hairs of the plant have been long regarded in the West Indies as an excellent vermifuge, particularly in the case of ascarides; and they are said to have been tried of late years with success in our own country. The spicule of a single pod mixed into an electuary with molasses is a dose for an adult. DOLL. s. A little girl's puppet or baby"DOLLAR, or DALLER, a silver coin current in several parts of Spain, Germany, and Holland. There are various kinds and divi sions of dollars, as the Rix-dollar, Semi-dollar, Quarter-dollar, &c. See MONEY TABLES.


DOLLOND (John), was born in Spitalfields in June 1706 his parents were French protestants, who quitted Normandy at the revocation of the edict of Nantz in 1685.

The first years of Mr. Dollond's life were employed at the loom; but, being of a very stu dious and philosophic turn of mind, his leisure hours were engaged in mathematical pursuits; and though by the death of his father, which happened in his infancy, his education gave way to the necessities of his family, yet at the age of fifteen, before he had an opportunity of seeing works of science or elementary treatises, he amused himself by constructing sun-dials, drawing geometrical schemes, and solving problems. Under the pressure of a close application to business for the support of his family, he found time, by abridging the hours of his rest, to extend his mathematical knowledge, and made a considerable proficiency in optics

and astronomy, to which he now principally devoted his attention, having in the earlier stages of his life prepared himself for the higher parts of those subjects by a correct knowledge of algebra and geometry. He also acquired a very respectable knowledge of the Latin and Greek languages.

He designed his eldest son, Peter Dollond, for the same business with himself; and for several years they carried on their manufacture together in Spitalfields; but the employment neither suited the expectations nor dispositions of the son, who, having received much inform ation upon mathematical and philosophical subjects from the instruction of his father, and observing the great value which was set upon his father's knowledge in the theory of optics by professional men, determined to apply that knowledge to the benefit of himself and his family; and accordingly, under the directions of his father, commenced optician. Success attended every effort; and in the year 1752 John Dollond, embracing the opportunity of pursuing a profession congenial with his mind, joined his son, and in consequence of his theoretical knowledge, soon became a proficient in the practical parts of optics.

His first attention was directed to improve the combination of the eye-glasses of refracting telescopes; and having succeeded in his system of four eye-glasses, he proceeded one step further, and produced telescopes furnished with five eye-glasses, which considerably surpassed the former; and of which he gave a particular account in a paper presented to the Royal Society, and which was read on the 1st of March 1753, and printed in the Phil. Trans. vol. lxviii. page 103.

Soon after this he made a very useful im provement in Mr. Savery's micrometer; for instead of employing two entire object-glasses, as Mr. Savery and M. Bouguer had done, he used only one glass cut into two equal parts, one of them sliding or moving laterally by the other. This was considered to be a great improvement, as the micrometer could now be applied to the reflecting telescope with much advantage, and which Mr. James Short immediately did. An account of the same was given to the Royal Society, in a paper which was afterwards printed in the Phil. Trans, vol. xlviii. page 178.

Mr. Dollond's celebrity in optics became now universal; and the friendship and protec tion of the most eminent men of science flattered and encouraged his pursuits. Surrounded by these enlightened men, in a state of mind prepared for the severest investigation of philo sophic truths, and in circumstances favourable to liberal enquiry, Mr. Dollond engaged in the discussion of a subject, which at that time not only interested this country, but all Europe. Sir Isaac Newton had declared, in his Treatise on Optics, page 112, "That all refracting substances diverged the prismatic colours in a coustant proportion to their mean refraction;" and drew this conclusion, "that refraction could not be produced without colour;" and

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