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years' standing, living at his own charge in either of the universities, or be admitted by the bishop who ordains him to some benefice or curacy then void. Otherwise the ordaining bishop shall maintain him, till he is preferred to some ecclesiastical living. And by stat. 13 and 14 Car. II. c. 4, no person is capable of being admitted to any benefice or ecclesiastical promotion, till he be ordained a priest; nor is a deacon capable of a donative, but is only allowed to use his orders as a chaplain to some family, a curate to some priest, or a lecturer without a title.

In the church of Seotland, the deacon's of fice only requires him to take care of the poor. DEACONESS, a female deacon; an order of women who had their distinct offices and services in the primitive church. This office appears as ancient as the apostolical age; for St. Paul calls Phebe a servant of the church of Cenchrea. The original word is novos, answerable to the Latin word ministra. Tertullian calls them vidua, widows, because they were commonly chosen out of the widows of the church; and, for the same reason, Epiphanius, and the council of Laodicea, call them goulas, elderly women, because none but such were ordinarily taken into this office. For, indeed, by some ancient laws, these four qualifications were required in every one that was to be admitted into this order. 1. That she should be a widow. 2. That she should be a widow that had born children. 3. A widow that was but once married, 4. One of a considerable age, 50 or 60 years old: though all these rules admitted of exceptions.

One part of their office was to assist the minister at the baptizing of women, to undress them for immersion, and to dress them again, that the whole ceremony might be performed with all the decency becoming so sacred a rite. Another part of their office was to be private catechists to the women-catechumens who were preparing for baptism. They were likewise to attend the women that were sick and in distress; to minister to martyrs and confessors in prison; to attend the women's gate in the church; and lastly, to assign all women their places in the church, regulate their behaviour, and preside over the rest of the widows; whence in some canons they are styled xeva, governesses. This order, which since the tenth or twelfth century has been wholly laid aside, was not abolished every where at once, but continued in the Greek church longer than in the Latin, and in some of the Latin churches longer than in others.

DEACONRY, DE'ACONSHIP. 8. The of fice or dignity of a deacon.

DEAD. s. (tead, Saxon.) 1. Deprived of life; exanimated (Hale). 2. Without life; inanimate (Pope). 3. Imitating death; senseless; motionless (Psalms). 4. Unactive; motionless (Lee.) 5. Empty; vacant (Dry den). 6. Useless; unprofitable (Addison). 7. Dull; gloomy; unemployed (Knolles). 8. Still; obscure (Hayward). 9. Having no resemblance of life (Dryden.) 10. Obtuse; dull;

not sprightly (Boyle). 11. Dull; frigid; not animated (Addison). 12. Tasteless; vapid; spiritless. 13. Uninhabited (Arbuthnot), 14. (in theology.) The state of spiritual death, lying under the power of sin.

The DEAD. 8. Dead men (Smith). DEAD. 8, Time in which there is remarkable stillness or gloom; as at midwinter and midnight (South. Dryden),

TO DEAD. v. n. (from the noun.) To lose force, of whatever kind (Bacon).

To DEAD. TO DE'ADEN. v. a. 1. To deprive of any kind of force or sensation(Bacon). 2. To make vapid, or spiritless (Bacon). DEAD-DOING. particip, a. (dead and do). Destructive; killing; mischievous (Hudibras).

DEAD-EYES, in naval affairs, certain blocks with three holes in them, whereby to draw tight the shrouds and stays of a ship. DEAD-LIFT. 8. (dead and lift.) Hopeless exigence (Hudibras).

DEAD-LIGHT, amongst seamen, a sort of strong wooden posts, made to fit the cabinwindows: they are always fixed in on any expectation of a storm, and the glass windows taken out, which might otherwise be shattered to pieces by the sea, and let great quantities of water pour into the ship.

DEAD-NETTLE. In botany. See LA


DEAD-RECKONING, in navigation, the judgment or estimation which is made of the place where a ship is, without any observation of the heavenly bodies; and is performed by keeping an account of her way by the log, in knowing the course they have steered by the compass, and by rectifying all the allowances for drift, lee-way, &c, according to the ship's known trim. This reckoning, however, is always to be corrected as often as any good ob servation can be obtained.

DEAD SEA, or LAKE ASPHALTITES. (See ASPHALTITES). A large lake, or inland sea of Palestine, into which the river Jordan runs. This latter contains neither animal nor vegetable life, no verdure on its banks, or fish in its waters. Mr. Maundrel, in his Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem, informs us, that the Dead sea is enclosed on the east and west with exceedingly high mountains; on the north it is bounded by the plain of Jericho, on which side it receives the waters of Jordan. On the south it is open, and extends beyond the reach of the eye. It is said to be twentyfour leagues long, and six or seven broad. "On the shore of the lake, we found (says he), a black sort of pebble, which being held in the flame of a candle, soon burns, and yields a smoke of an intolerable stench. It has this property, that it loses only of its weight, and not of its apparent bulk, by burning." The hills bordering upon the lake are said to abound with this sort of sulphureous stones. As for the bitumen, there was none at the place where Mr. Maundrel was; but it is gathered near the mountains on both sides in great plenty. He had several lumps of it brought to

him at Jerusalem. It exactly resembled pitch, and could scarcely be distinguished from it, but by its sulphureousness of smell and taste. Mr. Wells, in his Scripture Geography, assigns several forcible reasons for the belief, that the present appearances about the Dead sea are really caused by the divine judgment on Sodom and the cities of the plain, vol. i. p. 146. Mr. Gordon of Clunie, who has recently travelled in Palestine, presented a phial of the Dead sea water to sir Joseph Banks, at whose request it was carefully analysed by Dr. Alexander Marcet. One of the niost obvious peculiarities is, the great specific gravity of this water, which Dr. Marcet found to be 1211. The following is given as the most accurate result of the analysis. On summing up the con tents of 150 grains of the water, there appeared to be

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Hence it appears, that the Dead sea water now contains about one-fourth of its weight of salts, supposed in a state of perfect desiccation; or, if they be desiccated at the temperature of 180 on Fahrenheit's scale, they will amount to forty-one per cent. of the water! (Phil. Trans. for 1807). This appears to us to furnish the strongest possible confirmation of the Scripture account of the origin of the Dead sea. DEADLY. a. (from dead. 1. Destrnctive; mortal; murderous (Shakspeare). 2. Mortal; implacable (Knolles).

DEADLY, ad. 1. In a manner resembling the dead (Dryden). 2. Mortally (Ezekiel). 3. Implacably; irreconcilably; destructively.

DEADLY CARROT. See THAPSIA. DEADLY NIGHTSHADE. See ATROPA. DE'ADNESS. 8. (from dead.) 1. Frigidity; want of warmth; want of ardour; want of affection (Rogers). 2. Weakness of the vital powers; languor; faintness; inactivity of the spirits (Lee). 3. Vapidness of liquors; loss of spirit (Mortimer).

DEAF. a. (doof, Dutch.) 1. Wanting the sense of hearing (Holder). 2. Deprived of the power of hearing (Dryden). 3. Obscurely heard (Dryden).

To DEAF. TO DEAFEN. v. a. To deprive of the power of hearing (Dryden).

DE'AFLY, ad. (from deaf.) 1. Without sense of sounds. 2. Obscurely to the ear.

DEAFNESS. s. (from deaf.) 1. Want of the power of hearing; want of sense of sounds (Holder). 2. Unwillingness to hear (King Charles).

DEAFNESS, the state of a person who wants the sense of hearing; or, the disease of the ear, which prevents its due reception of sounds. Deafness generally arises either from an obstruction or a compression of the auditory nerve; or from some collection of matter in the cavities of the inner ear; or from the auditory passage being stopped up by some hardened excrement; or, lastly, from some excrescence, a swelling of the glands, or some foreign body introduced within it. Those born deaf are also dumb; not being able to learn any language, at least in the common way. However, as the eyes in some measure serve them for ears, they may understand what is said by the mo tion of the lips, tongue, &c. of the speaker ; and even accustom themselves to move their own, as they see other people do, and by this means learn to speak. Thus it was that Dr. Wallis taught two young gentlemen, born deaf, to know what was said to them, and to return pertinent answers. Digby gives us another instance of the same, within his own knowledge; and there was a Swiss physician lately living in Amsterdam, one John Conrad Animan, who effected the same, in several children born deaf, with surprising success.


In the Philosophical Transactions, No. 312, we have an account by Mr. Waller, R. S. secretary, of a man and his sister, each about fifty years old, born in the same town with Mr. Waller, who had neither of them the least sense of hearing, yet both of them knew, by the motion of the lips only, whatever was said to them, and would answer pertinently to the question proposed. It seems they could both hear and speak when children, but lost their sense afterwards; whence they retained their speech, which, though uncouth, was yet intelligible. Such another instance is related by bishop Burnet of a young woman. years old, they perceived she had lost her hearing; and ever since, though she hears great noises, yet hears nothing of what is said to her: but by observing the motions of the mouth and lips of others, she acquired so many words, that out of these she has formed a sort of jargon, in which she can hold conversation whole days with those that can speak her language. She knows nothing that is said to her, unless she see the motion of their mouths that speak to her, so that in the night they are obliged to light candles to speak to her. One thing will appear the strangest part of the whole narration: she has a sister, with whom she has practised her language more than with any body else; and in the night, by laying her hand on her sister's mouth, she can perceive by that what she says, and so can discourse with her in the dark."

It is observable, that deaf persons, and several others thick of hearing, hear better and

more easily if a loud noise be raised at the time when you speak to them; which is owing, no doubt, to the greater tension of the ear-drum on that occasion. Dr. Wallis mentions a deaf woman, who, if a drum were beat in the room, could hear any thing very clearly; so that her husband hired a drummer for a servant, that by this means he might hold conversation with his wife. The same author mentions another, who, living near a steeple, could always hear very well if there was a ringing of three or four bells, but never else. See EAR TRUMPET.

The abbé de l'Epée, and M. Sicard, have been very successful in educating the deaf and dumb. De l'Epée's method was translated into English, and published by Cadell and Davies, in 1801: we extract the commencement of the process of instruction, as comprehending the leading principles of the scheme: "It is not by the mere pronunciation of words, in any language, that we are taught their signification: the words door, window, &c. in our own, might have been repeated to us hundreds of times in vain: we should never. have attached an idea to them, had not the objects designated by these names been shown to us at the same time. A sign of the hand or of the eye has been the sole mean by which we learned to unite the idea of these objects with the sounds that struck our ear. Whenever we heard these sounds, the same ideas arose in our minds, because we recollected the signs made to us when they were pronounced.

"Exactly similar must be our measures with the deaf and dumb. Their tuition commences with teaching them a manual alphabet, such as boys at school make use of to hold conversation at one end of a form with their companions at the other. The various figures of these letters strike forcibly the eyes of deaf and dumb persons, who no more confound them, than we confound the various sounds that strike our


"We next write (I say we, because in the operations with my deaf and dumb pupils, I frequently have assistance) in large characters with a white crayon, upon a black table, these two words, the door, and we show them the door. They immediately apply their manual alphabet five or six times to each of the letters composing the word door (they spell it with their fingers) and impress on their memory the number of letters and arrangement of them; this done, they efface the word, and taking the crayon themselves, write it down in characters, no matter whether well or ill formed; after wards they will write it, as often as you show them the same object.

"It will be the same with respect to every thing else pointed out to them, the name being previously written down; which being first on the table, in large characters, may afterwards be inscribed in characters of ordinary size, upon different cards; and these being given to them, they amuse themselves in examining one another's proficiency, and ridicule those that blunder. Experience has manifested that a deaf and dumb person possessing any mental

powers will acquire by this method upwards of eighty words in less than three days. "Take some cards having suitable inscriptions, and deliver them one by one to your pupil; he will carry his hand successively to every part of his body conformably to the name on the card delivered to him. Mix and shuffle the cards as you please; he will make no mistake; or if you choose to write down any of these names on the table, you will see him, in like manner, distinguish with his finger every object whose name is so offered him; and thus clearly prove that he comprehends the meaning of every one.

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By this process the pupil will obtain, in very few days, a knowledge of all the words which express the different parts of our frame, from head to foot, as well as of those that express the various objects which surround us, on being properly pointed out to him as you write their names down on the table, or on cards put into his hands.

"We are not, however, even in this early stage, to confine ourselves to this single species of instruction, amusing as it is to our pupils. The very first or second day we guide their hands to make them write down, or we write down for them ourselves, the present tense of the indicative of the verb to carry.

"Several deaf and dumb pupils being round a table, I place my new scholars on my right hand. I put the forefinger of my left hand on the word I, and we explain it by signs in this manner: showing myself with the forefinger of my right, I give two or three gentle taps on my breast. I then lay my left forefinger on the word carry, and taking up a large quarto volume, I carry it under my arm, in the skirts of my gown, on my shoulder, on my head, and on my back, walking all the while with the mien of a person bearing a load. None of these motions escape his observation.

"I return to the table; and in order to explain the second person, I lay my left forefinger on the word thou, and carrying my right to my pupil's breast, I give him a few gentle taps, making him notice that I look at him, and that he is likewise to look at me. I next lay my finger on the word carriest, the second person, and having delivered him the quarto volume, I make signs for him to perform what he has just seen me perform: he laughs, takes the volume, and executes his commission extremely well."

This method is adapted to the conception of the pupil, in his progress through the intricacies of grammar. The following description of the means of initiating him in a knowledge of the tenses of verbs will convey a sufficient idea of the plan to general readers:

"The pupil, though deaf and dumb, had, like us, an idea of the past, the present, and the future, before he was placed under our tuition, and was at no loss for signs to manifest the difference.

"In France, the priests used to go in clerical habits as their ordinary dress.

"Did he mean to express a present action? He made a sign prompted by nature, which we all make in the same case without being conscious of it, and which consists in appeal ing to the eyes of the spectators to witness the presence of our operation; but if the action did not take place in his sight, he laid his two hands flat upon the table, beating upon it gently, as we are all apt to do on similar occasions: and these are the signs he learns again in our lessons, by which to indicate the present of a verb.

"Did he design to signify that an action is past? He tossed his hand carelessly two or three times over his shoulder: these signs we adopt to characterize the past tenses of a verb. "And lastly, when it was his intent to announce a future action, he projected his right hand here again is a sign we give him to represent the future of a verb,

"It is now time to call in art to the assistance of nature.

"Having previously taught him to write out the names of the seven days of the week, one directly under the other, we desire him to set them down in that order, and we then put on each side of his writing what follows before and after the same words under different heads.


To-day-Sunday-I arrange nothing.
Yesterday-Monday-I was arranging my

fect; and the latter being in the same predicament with regard to the imperfect."

An asylum for the support and education of the poor was instituted in 1792, under the patronage of the marquis of Buckingham. A spacious building for the reception of the pupils is erected at the bottom of Kent-street, on the road to Deptford. We sincerely wish an establishment instituted with so laudable a purpose may meet with all the encouragement it deserves: and when it is known that the number of deaf and dumb in this country amounts to several hundreds, we trust the liberality of the British public will need no other stimulus. There is an excellent establishment of the same kind at Edinburgh.


DEAL. s. (deel, Dutch.) 1. Part. Quantity; degree of more or less (Ben Jonson). 3. (From the verb.) The art or practice of dealing cards (Swift). 4. (deyl, Dutch). Firwood, or the wood of pines (Boyle).

DEAL, a seaport in Kent, with a market on Thursdays. It is seated on the straits of Dover, and is a member of the cinque port of Sandwich, governed by a mayor. It contains 917 houses, and 5420 inhabitants. Lat. 51. 13 N. Lon. 1. 29 E.

To DEAL. v. a. (declen, Dutch.) 1. To distribute; to dispose to different persons (Tickel). 2. To scatter; to throw about (Dryden). 3. To give gradually, to one after another (Gay).

To DEAL. v. n. 1. To traffic; to trade (Decay of Piety). 2. To act between two persons: to intervene (Bacon). 3. To behave well or ill in any transaction (Tillotson). 1. To act in any manner (Shakspeare) 5. To Day before yesterday-Tuesday-I arranged DEAL by. To treat well or ill (Locke). 6. my chamber.



Past Perfect. Three days ago-Wednesday-I had arranged my closet.


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Day after to-morrow-Friday-I shall ar range my drawers.


TO DEAL in. To have to do with; to be engaged in to practise (Atterbury). 7. To DEAL with. To treat in any manner; to use well or ill (South. Tillotson). 8. TO DEAL with. To contend with (Sidney).

Tʊ DEA'LBATE. v. a. (dealbo, Lat.) To whiten; to bleach.

DEALBATION. s. (dealbatio, Lat.) The act of bleaching or whitening (Brown).

DEALER. s. (from deal.) 1. One that has to do with any thing (Swift). 2. A trader or trafThree days hence-Saturday-I shall ar- ficker (Swift). 3. A person who deals the cards. range my cupboards.

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Yesterday, day before yesterday, three days ago, are explained by the number of times we have slept since the day of which we speak.

"To-morrow, day after to-morrow, three days hence, are explained by the number of times we are to sleep till the day in question arrive.

"We next teach our pupil to lay a restriction upon his motions. To express a thing past, he used to throw his arm backwards and forwards towards his shoulder, without rule: we tell him, he must throw it only once for the imperfect, twice for the perfect, and three times for the past perfect; which in truth is analogous to what is signified, the past perfect announcing an action longer past than the per

DEALING. s. (from deal.) 1. Practice; action (Raleigh). 2. Intercourse (Addison). 3. Measure of treatment (Hammond). í. Traffic: business (Swift).

DEAMBULATION. 8. (deambulatio, Lat.) The act of walking abroad.

DEAMBULATORY, a. (deambulo, Lat.) Relating to the practice of walking abroad.

DEAN, a prime dignitary in most and collegiate churches; being usually the president of the chapter. He is called dean, decanus, of the Greek sexa, ten, as being supposed to preside over ten canons or prebenda

ries, at least.

Canonists distinguish between deans of cathedral, and those of collegiate churches. The first, with their chapter, are regularly subject to the jurisdiction of the bishop. As to deans of collegiate churches, they have usually the con

tentious jurisdiction in themselves, that is, they exercise jurisdiction over their canons in all civil or criminal matters; though sometimes this belongs to them in common with the chapter.

In England, as there are two foundations of cathedral and collegiate churches, the old and the new (the latter being those founded by Henry the Eighth on the suppression of the abbots and priors, when their convents were turned into dean and chapter); so there are two ways of creating the deans. Those of the old foundation, as the deans of St. Paul's, York, &c. are raised to their dignity much like a bishop; the prince first sending out his congé d'elire to the chapter; the chapter then choosing, the king yielding his royal assent, and the bishop confirming him, and giving his mandate to instal him. Those of the new foundation, as the deans of Canterbury, Durham, Ely, Norwich, Winchester, &c. are donative, and are installed by a shorter course; only by the king's letters patent, without either election or confirmation. There are some cathedral churches, which never had a dean; as that of St. David's and Landaff, where the bishop is the head of the chapter, and in his absence the archdeacon.

Constantine, we are told, erected an office of nine hundred and fifty persons at Constantinople, taken out of divers trades and professions, whom he exempted from all impositions, and bestowed them on the cathedral church, to render the offices of burial gratis to the defunct, particularly to the poor. These he called decani, and lecticarii, probably because they were divided by tens; each whereof had a bier, or litter, to carry the bodies in. It is supposed to be these, who, under Constantius, began to be called copiate; i. e. clerks destined for labour; for they are usually ranked among the clerks, and even before the chantors. By a law of the year 357, it appears, that there were some of these copiate at Rome.

There are also deans without a chapter, as the dean of Battle in Sussex, dean of Bocking, dean of the arches, &c. and deans without a jurisdiction, as the dean of the chapel royal. In this sense the word is applied to the chief of certain peculiar churches or chapels.

DEAN AND CHAPTER, are the bishop's council to assist him in the affairs of religion, and to assent to every grant which the bishop shall make to bind his successors. As a deanery is a spiritual dignity, a man cannot be a dean and prebendary of the same church.

DEAN (Rural), or DEAN (Urban), was formerly an ecclesiastical person, who had a district of ten churches, or parishes, either in the country or city, within which he exercised jurisdiction.

DEAN, a town of Gloucestershire, with a market on Mondays. Lat. 51. 50 N. Lon. 2. 31 W.

DEAN FOREST, in Gloucestershire, takes its name from the above town. It includes that part of the county which lies between the Severn and the shires of Monmouth and Here

ford. It contains four market-towns, and twenty-three parishes, and is in general very fertile.

DE'ANERY. 8. (from dean.) 1. The office of a dean (Clarendon). 2. The revenue of a dean (Swift). 3. The house of a dean (Shakspeare).

DE ANSHIP. s. (from dean.) The office and rank of a dean.

DEAR. a. (deon, Saxon.) 1. Beloved; favourite; darling (Addison). 2. Valuable; of a high price; costly (Pope). 3. Scarce; not plentiful: as, a dear year. 4. Sad; hateful; grievous (Shakspeare).

DEAR. 8. A word of endearment (Dryden). DE ARBOUGHT. a. (dear and bought.) Purchased at a high price (Roscommon). DE'ARLING. 8. (now written darling.) Favourite (Spenser).

DEARLY. ad. (from dear.) 1. With great fondness (Wotton). 2. At a high price (Ba con).

To DEARN. v. a. (sýnnan, Saxon.) To mend clothes.

DE'ARNESS. 8. (from dear.) 1. Fondness; kindness; love (South). 2. Scarcity; high price (Swift).

DE/ARNLY. ad. (deoɲn, Saxon.) Secretly; privately; unseen: obsolete (Spenser).

DEARTH. 8. (from dear.) 1. Scarcity which makes food dear (Bacon). 2. Want; need; famine (Shakspeare). 3. Barrenness; sterility (Dryden).

To DEARTICULATE. v. a. (de and articulus, Lat.) To disjoint; to dismember. DEARTICULATION. See DIARTHRO

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DEATH. 8. (deað, Saxon.) 1. The extinction of life (Hebrews). 2. Mortality; destruction (Shakspeare). 3. The state of the dead (Shakspeare). 4. The manner of dying (Exekiel). 5. The image of mortality represented by a skeleton (Shakspeare). 6. Murder; the act of destroying life unlawfully (Bacon). 7. Cause of death (Kings), 8. Destroyer (Bro.). 9. (In poetry.) The instrument of death (Dryden). 10. (In theology.) Damnation; eternal torments (Church Catechism).

DEATH (Symptoms of). The following are the most certain signs of death, if taken collectively. 1. Cessation of the pulse. 2. Total suppression of breathing. 3. Loss of animal heat. 4. Rigidity of the body and inflexibility of the limbs. 5. Relaxation of the lower jaw. 6. Inability of the eyeballs to return to their sockets, when pressed by the finger. 7. Dimness, faintness, and sinking of the cornea, or the uppermost horny coat of the eye. 8. Foam in the cavity of the mouth. 9. Blue spots of various sizes, and on different parts of the body. 10. A cadaverous smell. 11. Insensibility to all external stimulants. All these symptoms, however, says Dr. Willich, if individually considered, are far from being conclusive: they then only afford a certain criterion of death, when most, or all of them, concur at the same time; especially, if the sixth, seventh, and

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