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should never exceed three inches in depth, but may be so wide as to contain a gallon, or a gal lon and a half of milk. When filled, they ought to be placed on shelves, to remain there till the cream be completely separated. Now it is to be taken off with nicety, by a skimming. dish (without lifting or removing the milk, or shedding any of it on the floor, which would soon corrupt the air of the room), and then deposited in a separate vessel, till a proper quantity be collected for churning. A firm, neat wooden barrel, which is open at one end, and has a lid closely fitted to it, appears to be well calculated for this purpose; a cock or spigot ought also to be fixed near the bottom, to draw off the thin or serous part, that may drain from the cream; and the inner side of the opening should be covered with a piece of fine silver wire-gauze, in order to prevent the latter from escaping, while the former is allowed to


But, if notwithstanding the fatal consequences arising from the use of metallic uten sils, or of earthen vessels glazed with lead, farmers still persist in employing them, it ought to be a constant and indispensable rule, to scald and scour them properly with salt and water every day, and to dry them thoroughly, before the milk is deposited in them. Lastly, it is sincerely to be wished, that all the uten sils employed in the dairy, of whatever materials they may consist, should be cleaned with similar care, previously to their being used; and, as long as the least acid smell is perceptible, they ought to undergo repeated scour ings, till they are completely sweetened.

DAIRYMAID. 8. (dairy and maid.) The woman servant whose business is to manage the milk (Dryden).

DAIS, in botany, a genus of the class decandria, order monogynia. Involucre fourleaved; corol four or five-cleft; berry one seeded. Three species, natives of the Cape or Tongataba island.

DA'ISY.8. (dægereaze, Saxon, day's eye.)
A spring flower. See BELLIS.

DAISY (Michaelmas). See ASTER.

Valley also (vallis, Latin; vallee, French) signifies a hollow between high grounds. The one is a northern, and the other a southern word, for the same idea. But, as it is esteemned a perfection in English writing to construct an antithesis with words of collocal origin, it is become usual to oppose dale to hill, which is also a word of Saxon descent; and to oppose valley to mountain, which is also a word of French descent. Hence we are accustomed to attach ideas of inferior magnitude to dale, and of superior magnitude to ralley: by standing in opposition to the words hill and mountain, they have acquired the same relative character for dimension:

DALEA, a province of Sweden, bounded on the north by Dalecarlia, on the east by the Wermerland and the lake Wener, on the south by Gothland, and on the north by Norway and the sea.

DALEA, in botany, a genus of the class diadelphia, order decandria. Wings and heel growing to the column of the stamens ; stainens five or ten, united without any separate filaments; legume one-seeded. Fourteen species; all natives of North or South America. DALECARLIA, a province in Sweden, so called from a river of the same name, on which it lies, near Norway. It is divided into three parts, which they call valleys; and is about 175 miles in length, and 100 in breadth. It is full of mountains, which abound in mines of copper and iron, some of which are of a prodigious depth.

DALECHA MPIA, in botany, a genus of the class monoecia, order monodelphia. Outer common involucre with three leaflets; inner with two three-cleft leaves. Male umbellule ten-flowered; involucel two-leaved, with numerous chaffs; proper perianth five-leaved; corolless; filaments numerous. Fem. florets three-involucel, three-leaved; proper perianth of eleven leaflets; corolless; style filiform; capsule three-grained. Two species only, d. corolata, of New Grenada; and d. scandens, of the West Indies; the last a climbing plant, as its name imports, rising to a considerable height, and arined on its leaves with bristly hairs, that sting the moment they are touched. a D'ALEMBERT. See ALEMBERT D'.

DAISY-CUTTER, in veterinary language, term for a horse that goes so near the ground as frequently to touch it with the tip of his toes, and to be in continual danger of falling. Most broken-kneed horses are of this kind.

DALACA, an island of the Red sea, opposite the coast of Abex, seventy-two miles long, and fifteen broad. The inhabitants are ne

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DALEN (Cornelius van), a Dutch engraver, born about 1640. He engraved a great variety of portraits, and a set of antique statues in a masterly style.

DALIN (Olaus de), a Swedish poet, born at Winsberg in 1708. He wrote a poem, entitled, The Liberty of Sweden, and a tragedy entitled Brunhilda. He is also the author of the General History of Sweden, and other works. He became preceptor to prince Gustavus, and chancellor of the court; and died in 1763.

DALKEITH, a town of Scotland, in Mid Lothian. Lat. 55, 54 N. Lon, 3, 12 W.

DA'LLIANCE. 8. (from dally.) 1. Interchange of caresses; acts of fondness (Milton). 2. Conjugal conversation (Milton), 3. Delay; procrastination (Shakspeare).

DA'LLIER. 8. (from dally.) A trifler; a fondler (Ascham).

DALLOP. s. A tuft, or clump (Tusser). To DALLY. v. n. (dollen, Dutch, to trifle.) 1. To trifle; to play the fool (Calamy). 2. To exchange caresses; to fondle (Shakspeare). 3. To sport; to play; to frolic (Shakspeare). 4. To delay (Wisdom).

To DA'LLY. v. a. To put off; to delay; to amuse till a proper opportunity (Knolles).

DALMATIA, a province of Europe, which is divided among the Venetians, Hungarians, Ragusans, and Turks. It has Bosnia on the N. the gulf of Venice on the S. Servia on the E. and Morlachia on the W.

DALMATICA, a garment with large open sleeves, worn originally by bishops,

DALRYMPLE (Sir David), a Scotch judge. He was born at Edinburgh in 1726 ilis father was anditor of the exchequer for Scotland, and his mother daughter of the earl of Haddington. He was educated at Eton, from whence he was sent to Utrecht, where he continued till 1746, and then returned to Edinburgh, and became an advocate. In 1766 he was appointed a judge, on which occasion he took the title of lord Hailes, according to the custom of the country. He died in 1792, leaving two daughters. Lord Hailes wrote and published a great number of books and tracts, as Memorials and Letters relating to the History of Britain in the Reign of James I. and Charles I. two vols. 1762, and 1766; Remarks on the History of Scotland, 1773, 12mo.; Annals of Scotland, 4to. 1779, two vols.; Remains of Christian Antiquity, 1778, three vols. ; several Memoirs, intended for a Biographia Scotica, &c.

Thongh the church of Scotland does not much encourage funeral discourses, a very landable endeavour was made to render the talents and virtues of lord Hailes a theme of instruction to mankind, in a sermon preached soon after his death in the church of Inveresk, by his learned friend, and venerable pastor, Dr. Carlyle; from which we shall transcribe a summary view of his character as a judge, a scholar, a Christian, and a citizen.

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His knowledge of the laws was accurate and profound, and he applied it in judgment with the most scrupulous integrity. In his proceedings in the criminal court, the satisfaction he gave to the public could not be surpassed. ilis abhorrence of crimes, his tenderness for the criminals, his respect for the laws, and his reverential awe of the Omniscient Judge, inspired him on some occasions with a commanding sublimity of thought, and a feeling solem nity of expression, that made condemnation seem just as the doom of Providence to the criminals themselves, and raised a salutary horror of crimes in the breast of the audience.

"Conscious of the dignity and importance of the high office he held, he never departed from the decorum that becomes that reverend character; which indeed it cost him no effort to support, because he acted from principle and sentiment, both public and private. Affectionate to his family and relations, simple and

mild in his manners, pure and conscientious in his morals, enlightened and entertaining in his conversation; he left society only to regret, that, devoted as he was to more important employments, he had so little time to spare for intercourse with them.

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· He was well known to be of high rank in the republic of letters, and his loss will be deeply felt through many of her departments. His labours in illustration of the history of his country, and many other works of profound erudition, remain as monuments of his accurate and faithful research for materials, and his sound judgment in the selection of them. Of his unfeigned piety and devotion, you have very often been witnesses where we now are. I must add, however, that his attendance on religious ordinances was not merely out of respect to the laws and for the sake of example (motives which should never fail to have influence on persons of superior rank, for the most obvious reasons), but from principle and conviction, and the most conscientious regard to his duty; for he not only practised all the virtues and charities in proof of his faith, but he demonstrated the sincerity of his zeal by the uncommon pains he took to illustrate primitive Christianity, and by his elaborate and able defences of it against its enemies.

"His profound researches into history, and his thorough knowledge of the laws, made him perfectly acquainted with the progress of the constitution of Britain, from the first dawn of liberty in the common law of the land, and the trial by jury which precede all written records, and afterwards in the origin and establishment of parliaments, through all its vicissitudes and dangers, till at last, by the blessing of divine Providence, which brought many wonderful events to concur to the same end, it was renewed, strengthened, and finally confirmed by the Revolution.

"It was this goodly and venerable fabric of the British constitution which the deceased most respectable character contemplated with admiration and delight (of late, indeed, with a mixture of anxiety and fear), as the temple of piety, as the genuine source of greater happiness and freedom, to a larger portion of mankind than ever flowed from any government upon earth.

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I indeed can the times bear the loss of such an affectionate patriot and able guardian of the laws of his country. But we must not murmur at the will of Providence, which in its mercy, may have withdrawn the good man from the evil to come. In mercy, him, whose righteous spirit was so deeply grieved when he saw the wicked rage, and the people imagine a vain thing.'

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Such is the memorial which, in the hour of recent sorrow, followed this excellent man to the grave; and we believe it will yet be allow ed to be just by all who had the happiness of his lordship's acquaintance, and are what he was, friends to the best interests of mankind.

A large catalogue of the numerous and cus rious performances of lord Hailes is given

under the article Dalrymple, in the Supplement to the Encyclo. Britan.

DALTON, a town of Lancashire, with a market on Saturdays. Lat. 54. 14 N. Lon. 3. 18 W.

DALUS, in antiquity, a narrow slip of pasture, between two pieces of arable land.

DAM. s. (from dame, which anciently signified mother.) The mother (Ray). DAM. 8. (dam, Dutch.) A mole or bank to confine water (Mortimer).

To DAM. v. a. (demman, Saxon; dammen, Dutch.) To confine, or shut up, water by moles or dams (Otway).

DAMAGE. 8. (domage, French.) 1. Mischief; burt; detriment (Davies). 2. Loss; mischief suffered (Milton). 3. The value of mischief done (Clarendon). 4. Reparation of damage; retribution (Bacon). 5. (In law.) Any hurt or hinderance that a man taketh in his estate (Cowell).

To DAMAGE. v. a. To mischief; to injure; to impair; to hnrt; to harm (Addison).

To DAMAGE. v. n. To take damage. DA'MAGEABLE. a. (from damage.) 1. Susceptible of hurt: as, damageable goods. 2. Mischievous; pernicious (Govern. of Tongue.) DAMAN OF ISRAEL. In zoology. See DIPUS.

DAMAN, a maritime town of the East Indies, at the entrance of the gulf of Cambaya, It belongs to the Portuguese. Lat. 20. 20 N. Lon 72. 35 E.

DAMASCENE. (from Damascus.) A small black plum; a damson (Bacon).

DAMASCENUS (John), an illustrious father of the church in the eighth century, born at Damascus, where his father, though a Christian, enjoyed the office of counsellor of state to the Saracen caliph; to which the son succeeded. He retired afterwards to the monastery of St. Sabas, and spent the remainder of his life in writing books of divinity. His works have been often printed; but the Paris edition in 1712, two volumes folio, is esteemed the best.

DAMASCIUS, a celebrated heathen philosopher, born at Damascus in the year 510, when the Goths reigned in Italy. He wrote the Life of his master Isidorus; and dedicated it to Theodora, a very learned and philosophical lady, who had also been a pupil to Isidorus. In this Life, which was copiously written, he frequently made oblique attacks on the Christian religion. We have nothing remaining of it but some extracts preserved by Photius. Damascius succeeded Theon in the rhetorical school, and Isidorus in that of philosophy, at Athens.

DAMASCUS, now called SCHAM, a considerable town of Syria, in Asiatic Turkey. It is situated on a fertile plain, encompassed with hills, and finely watered by the river Barrady, anciently the Pharpbar, the stream of which flows through the city, and supplies the fountains, bagnios, and houses. The appearance of this city is inexpressibly beautiful at a little distance, but not altogether so fine within it,

though the mosques, and other public buildings are in general handsome. In Scham, a considerable silk manufactory is carried on, and several other articles are furnished by the luxuriancy of its neighbourhood. It is the see of an archbishop, and is inhabited by great numbers of Christians and Jews. Lat. 33, 45 N. Lon, 37. 0 E.

DAMASCUS STEEL, a very fine kind of steel, made in some parts of the Levant, and particularly at Damascus, remarkable for its excellent temper; and used chiefly in the making of sword-blades.

Some authors assure us it comes from the kingdom of Golconda in the East Indies; where the method of tempering with alum, which the Europeans have never been able to imitate, was first invented.

DAMASK, a silk stuff, with a raised pattern, so that the right side of the damask is that which has the flowers raised or saturated. Damasks should be of dressed silk, both in warp and woof; and in France, half an ell in breadth: they are made at Chalons, in Champagne, and in some places in Flanders, as at Tournay, &c. entirely of wool, three-eighths of an ell wide, and twenty ells long.

DAMASK is also a kind of wrought linen made in Flanders and in this country. It takes its name on account of its resemblance to damask. It is chiefly used for table linens.

To DAMASK. v. a. (from the noun.) 1. To form flowers upon stuffs. 2. To variegate; to diversify (Fenton). DAMASK ROSE. 8. A red rose (Bacon). See RoSA.

DAMASKEENING, or DAMASKING, the art or operation of beautifying iron, steel, &c. by making incisions in them, and filling them up with gold and silver wire; chiefly used for adorning sword-blades, guards, and gripes, locks of pistols, &c. Damaskeening partakes of the mosaic, of engraving, and of carving: like the mosaic, it has inlaid work; like engraving, it cuts the metal representing different figures; and, as in chasing, gold and silver are wrought in relievo. There are two ways of damasking: the one, which is the finest, is when the metal is cut deep with proper instruments, and inlaid with gold and silver wire; the other is superficial only.

DAMASO'NIUM, in botany, a genus of the class hexandria, order hexagynia. Spathe one-leaved, five-winged; calyx superior, threeparted; corol three-petalled; berry ten-celled, many-seeded. One species only; a native of India, with radical, heart-shaped, entire leaves, and a one-flowered scape.

DAMATRIUS, the Boeotian name for the Athenian month Pyanepsian.

DAMAUN, a seaport of the Deccan of Hindustan, at the entrance of the gulf of Cambay. It is subject to the Portuguese. Lat. 20. 20 N. Lon. 72. 25 E.

DAME. 8. (dame, French; dama, Spanish.) 1. A lady; the old title of honour to women. 2. Mistress of a low family (L'Estrange). 3. Woman in general (Shakspeare).

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DAMIANISTS, in church history, a branch of the ancient acephali severitæ. They agreed with the Catholics in admitting the fourth council, but disowned any distinction of persons in the Godhead; and professed one single nature, incapable of any difference; and yet they called God the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. They seem to have been a kind of Sabellians. They took their name from Damianus, a bishop of Alexandria, in the sixth century.

DAMIETTA, an ancient and rich town of Egypt, with a good harbour, and a Greek archbishop's see. It is seated on one of the eastern mouths of the Nile, and contains about 80,000 inhabitants. This was the ancient Pelusium. Lat. 31. 22 N. Lon. 31. 55 E.

To DAMN. v. a. (damno, Latin.) 1. To doom to eternal torments in a future state (Bacon). 2. To procure or cause to be eternally condemned (South). 3. To condemn; to censure (Dryden). 4. To hoot or hiss any public performance; to explode (Pope).

DA'MNABLE. a. (from damn.) 1. Deserving damnation (Hooker). 2. Odious; pernicious (Shakspeare).

DA'MNABLY. ad. (from damnable.) In such a manner as to incur eternal punishment (South.)

DAMNATION. s. (from damn.) Exclusion from divine mercy; condemnation to eternal punishment (Taylor).

DAMNATORY. a. (from damnatorius, Lat.) Containing a sentence of condemnation. DAMNED. part. a. (from damn.) Hateful; detestable; abominable (Rowe.) DAMNIFIC. a. (from damnify.) curing loss; mischievous.


To DA'MNIFY. v. a. (from damnifico, Latin.) 1. To endamage; to injure (Locke). 2. To hurt; to impair (Spenser).

DA'MNINGNESS. s. (from damning.) Tendency to procure damnation (Hammond). DAMOCLES, one of the flatterers of Dionysius the Elder, of Sicily. He admired the tyrant's wealth, and pronounced him the hap. piest man on earth. Dionysius prevailed upon him to undertake for a while the charge of royalty, and be convinced of the happiness which a sovereign enjoyed. Damocles ascended the throne, and while he gazed upon the wealth and splendour that surrounded him, he perceived a sword hanging over his head by a horse-hair. This so terrified him, that all his imagined felicity vanished at once, and he begged Dionysius to remove him from a situation which exposed his life to such fears and dangers. (Cicero).

DAMON. The most celebrated of this name is a Pythagorean philosopher, very inti mate with Pythias. When he had been condemned to death by Dionysius, he obtained from the tyrant leave to go and settle his domestic affairs, on promise of returning at a stated hour to the place of execution. Pythias pledged himself to undergo the punishment

which was to be inflicted on Damon, should he not return in time; and he consequently delivered himself into the hands of the tyrant. Damon returned at the appointed moment, and Dionysius was so struck with the fidelity of these two friends, that he remitted the punishment, and entreated them to permit him to share their friendship, and enjoy their confidence. (Val. Max.)

DAMP. a. (dampe, Dutch.) 1. Moist; inclining to wet; foggy (Dryden). 2. Dejected; sunk; depressed (Milton).

DAMP. 8.

(Dryden). 2. A noxious vapour exhaled from 1. Fog; moist air; moisture the earth (Woodward). 3. Dejection; depression of spirit (Roscommon).

To DAMP. v. a. (from the noun.) 1. To wet; to moisten; to make humid. 2. To depress; to deject; to chill (Atterbury) 3. To weaken; to abate; to hebetate (Milton),

DAMPIER (William), a famous navigator, descended from a good family in Somersetshire, in England, was born in 1652. Losing his father when very young, he was sent to the sea, where he soon distinguished himself, particularly in the South seas. His Voyage round the World is well known, and has gone through many editions. He appears afterwards to have engaged in an expedition concerted by the merchants of Bristol to the South sea, commanded by captain Woods Rogers, who sailed in August 1708, and returned by September 1711: but we have no further particulars of his life or death.

DAMPIER'S STREIGHT, a passage or opening discovered by captain Dampier, between King William's cape in New Guinea, in the South seas, and that tract to the eastward of it, with which it was formerly thought to join. DA'MPISHNESS, 8. (from damp). Tendeney to wetness; fogginess; moisture (Bucon).

DA'MPNESS. 8. (from damp). Moisture; fogginess (Dryden).

DAMPS, in natural history, noxious steams and exhalations, frequently found in mines, pits, wells, and other subterraneous places. See GAS.

DA'MPY. a. (from damp.) Dejected; gloomy; sorrowful (Hayward):

DAMSEL, DAMOISEL, or DAMOISEAU, an appellation anciently given to all young peo ple of genteel or noble extraction of either sex, e. gr. to the sons and daughters of knights, barons, and even of kings. Thus, in history, we read of the damsel Pepin, damsel Louis le Gros, damsel Richard, prince of Wales. Pasquier will have the word a diminutive of dam, an ancient name for lord; as in some authors we read Dam Dieu for Lord God; dam chevalier, &c. Though in its feminine sense he takes it to come from dame. Others derive the word from domicellus, or domnicellus, a diminutive of domnus,quasi parvus dominus: accordingly, Du Cange observes, that it has been sometimes written domenger. They who hold the signory of Commercy, M. de la Roque tells us, anciently held it in the title of damoiseau: and

M. de Marca assures us, that the noblesse of Bern is still divided into three bodies, or classes; the barons, the cavers, and the damsels, domicellos, called in that country domengers. The kings of Denmark and Sweden have the same title, as appears from Pontanus's History of Denmark, lib. vii. and viii. and Henry of Upsal's History of Suec. lib. iii. From the sons of kings, the appellation passed to those of great lords and barons; and, at length, to those of gentlemen who were not yet knights, DAMSEL, at present, is applied to all maids or girls not yet married; provided they be not of the lowest class of people.

DAMSEL is sometimes also applied to a kind of utensil put in beds, to warm old men's feet. DAMSON, the fruit of the prunus damas cena, which, when perfectly ripe, affords a wholesome article for pies, tarts, &c. gently opening the body; but when damsons are not perfectly mature, they produce cholicky pains, diarrhea, and convulsions in children. See PRUNUS and CHRYSOPHYLLUM.

DAN (Tribe of), in ancient geography, lay S.W. of the tribe of Judah, between it and the Mediterranean, contiguous to that of Simeon. DAN. 8. (from dominus, Latin.) The old term of honour for men (Prior).

DANAE, in fabulous history, the daughter of Acrisius, king of Argos, by Eurydice. She was confined in a brazen tower by her father, who had been told by an oracle, that his daughter's son would put him to death. His endea vours to prevent Danae from becoming a mother proved fruitless; as Jupiter, who was enamoured of her, introduced himself to her bed, by changing himself into a golden shower. From his embraces Danae had a son, with whom she was exposed on the sea by her father. The wind drove the bark which carried her to the coasts of the island of Seriphus, where she was saved by some fishermen, and carried to Polydectes, king of the place, whose brother, called Dictys, educated the child called Perseus, and tenderly treated the mother. Polydectes fell in love with her; but as he was afraid of her son, he sent him to conquer the Gorgons. When Perseus had victoriously finished his expedition, he retired to Argos with Danae to the house of Acrisius, whom he inadvertently killed. Some suppose that it was Protus, the brother of Acrisius, who introduced himself to Danae in the brazen tower; and instead of a golden shower, it was main tained, that the keepers of Danae were bribed by the gold of her seducer.

DANAE, an ancient coin; somewhat more than an obolus.

DANÆA, in botany, a genus of the class cryptogamia, order filices. Fructification oblong-linear, transversely immersed in the frond, parallel, many-celled; cells in a double row, opening upwards; seeds numerous, very minute. Two species only; d. nodosa, and d.


DANAIDES, in fabulous history, the fifty daughters of Danaus, king of Argos. When their uncle Ægyptus came from Egypt with his

fifty sons, they were promised in marriage to their cousins; and before the celebration of their nuptials, Danaus, who had been informed by an oracle that he was to be killed by one of his sons-in-law, made his daughters solemnly promise that they would destroy their husbands. They were provided with daggers by their father, and all, except Hypermnestra, the wife of Lyncens, murdered their cousins the first night of their nuptials, and presented him with the heads of their husbands. Hypermnestra was summoned to appear before her father, but the unanimous voice of the people declared her innocent. The sisters, according to the more received opinion, were condemned in hell to fill with water a vessel full of holes, so that the water ran out as soon as poured into it, and therefore their labour was infinite, and their punishment eternal. Apollodorus has given a catalogue of the names of the Danaides, and their respective husbands.


To DANCE. v. n. (danser, French.) To move in measure; to move with steps corre spondent to the sound of instruments (Shakspeare).

To DANCE ATTENDANCE. v. a. To wait withsuppleness and obsequiousness (Raleigh). To DANCE. v. a. To make to dance; to put into a lively motion (Bacon).

DANCE, or DANCING, as at present prac tised, may be defined, "an agreeable motion of the body, adjusted by art to the measures or tune of instruments, or of the voice." But, according to what some reckon more agreeable to the true genius of the art, dancing is "the art of expressing the sentiments of the mind, or the passions, by measured steps or bounds, that are made in cadence by regulated motions of the body, and by graceful gestures; all performed to correspond with certain musical sounds."

There is no account of the origin of the practice of dancing among mankind. It is found to exist among all nations whatever, even the most rude and barbarous; and, indeed, however much the assistance of art may be necessary to make any one perfect in the practice, the foundation must certainly lie in the mechanism of the human body itself.

The connection that there is between certain sounds and those motions of the human body called dancing, hath seldom been enquired into, though it is certainly a very curious spe culation. The power of certain sounds not only over the human species, but even over the inanimate creation, is indeed very surprising.

It is conjectured by very eminent philosophers, that all the sensations and passions to which we are subject, are intimately connected with the vibrations excited in the nerves of the human body. Hence, musical sounds have the greatest power over those people who are of a delicate sensible frame, and who have strong passions. If it be true, therefore, that every passion in the human breast in some measure depends upon a certain affection of the nervous system, or a certain electric vibration in the

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