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are much the same kind of fishes, in manner of feeding, cunning, size, and taste.

The haunts of dace are gravelly, sandy, and clayey bottoms; deep holes that are shaded; water-lily leaves, and the foam caused by an eddy in hot weather they are to he found on the shallow, and are then best taken with an artificial fly, grasshoppers, or gentles.

Dace spawn about the latter end of March, and are in season about three weeks after; they are not very good till about Michaelmas, and are best in February.

Baits for dace are the oak-worm, red-worm, brandling, gilt-tail, and indeed any worm bred on trees or bushes, that is not too large for his

mouth almost all kinds of flies and caterpillars.

Though dace are as often caught with a float as roach, yet they are not so properly float fishes; for they are to be taken with an artificial gnat, or ant-fly, or indeed almost any other small fly in its season. But in the Thames, above Richmond, the largest are caught with a natural green dun grasshopper, and sometimes with gentles; with both which you are to fish, as with an artificial fly; they are not to be come at till about September, when the weeds begin to rot: but when you have found where they lie, which in a warm day is generally on the shallow, it is incredible what havock you may make; pinch off the first joint of the grasshopper's legs, put the point of the hook in at the head, and bring it out at the tail. And in this way, likewise, you catch chub, especially if you throw under the boughs.

Fish for roach within six, and for dace within three inches near the bottom.

They will bite at any fly, but especially at the stone caddis, or day fly, the latter end of April, and most part of May; it is an excellent bait, floating at top of the water, and of which you may gather great quantities from the reeds and sedge by the water side: or from hawthorn bushes that grow near the bank of a shallow gravel stream, upon which they greatly delight to hang. They will also bite at antflies, of which the blackest are the best, found in mole-hills, June, July, August, and September; which you may preserve for your use, by putting them alive into a glass bottle, having first put into it some of the moist earth whence you gathered them, with some of the roots of the grass of the same hillocks, laying a clod of earth over the bottle: but if you would preserve them above a month, put them into a large runnet, which has been first washed with water and honey on the inside, and then you may retain them three months: yet the best time to make use of them is when they swarm, which is generally about the latter end of July, and the beginning of August.

This sort of fish, in a warm day, rarely refuses a fly at the top of the water; but when you fish under water for him, it is best to be within a handful, or sometimes more, of the ground.

If you would find dace or dare in winter, then, about All-hallow-tide, wherever you see

heaths, or sandy grounds ploughing up, follow the plough, and you will find beetle grubs in the form of a white worm, with a red head, as big as the top of a man's little finger and very soft; gather these, and put them into a vessel, with some of the earth whence they were taken, and you may keep them all the winter for an excellent bait.

DACI, in antiquity, the people of Dacia. DACIA, the ancient name of two countries of Europe: the one on this side of the Danube, called Dacia Aureliana; the other called Dacia Trajani, on the other side of that river. According to M. D'Anville, Dacia was about thirteen hundred miles in circuit.

DACIER (Andrew), a learned Frenchman ; born of protestant parents at Castres in Upper Languedoc, in 1651, and educated chiefly at Saumur under Tanaquil Faber, or Le Fevre, whose learned daughter he afterwards married. He published at Paris, in 1681, an edition of Pompeius Festus, for the use of the dauphin. His Horace, with a French version, came out the same year. In 1683 he married, and we do not find that he published any thing till 1691, when his translation of the Reflections of Marcus Antoninus appeared. The next year he published his translation of Aristotle's Poetics. From this time to his death he continued publishing some work or other every year. For his services to literature he was appointed perpetual secretary to the academy, rewarded with a pension of 2000 livres, and made keeper of the books in the king's closet. He died in 1722. Dacier and his wife renounced the protestant religion in 1685. Besides the works above-mentioned, he translated the works of Plato into French; the Lives of Plutarch; the Manual of Epictetus, &c. (Watkins),

DACIER (Anne), the wife of the preceding, and daughter of Le Fevre, professor of Greek at Saumur, where she was born in 1651. Her father discovering her turn for learning, indulged her wish, and gave her a most liberal education. In 1674 she published an edition of Callimachus, which gave so much satisfaction that she was employed to prepare editions of Latin authors for the use of the dauphin; accordingly she published Florus the same year. This book she sent to Christina queen of Sweden, who made her great offers if she would renounce the protestant religion, and reside at her court; but this she refused. In 1681 she published a translation of Anacreon and Sappho, which was followed by versions of some of Plautus's comedies, and of the Plutus and Clouds of Aristophanes. In 1683 she married M. Dacier, who joined with her in renouncing the protestant religion about two years afterwards. In 1688 she translated into French the comedies of Terence, with notes. In 1711 came out her translation of the Iliad ; and in 1714 she defended Homer against M. de la Motte, in a book entitled, The Causes of the Corruption of Taste; this was followed in 1716 by another against Father Hardouin. The same year came out her version of the Odyssey,

which closed her literary labours. She died in 1720. She had two daughters and a son. One of the daughters became a nun, the other died at the age of 18, and the son when he was a child. Madame Dacier was as remarkable for her modesty as for her erudition. A learned German having paid her a visit, begged that she would write her name and a sentence in his book. She excused herself as long as she could, but being strongly importuned she complied, and added to her signature a verse from Sophocles, importing that silence is the ornament of the female sex. (Watkins).


DACTYL. (8xxTuños, dactylus.) In ancient poetry, a metrical foot, consisting of one long and two short syllables, as axis, and candidus. The dactyle and spondee are the only feet or measure used in hexameter verses, the former being esteemed more sprightly, and the latter more solemn and grave. Accordingly, where great activity is signified, we find the dactyls used with much propriety, as in the following verses of Virgil:

DAD. DA'DDY. 8. The child's way of expressing father (Shakspeare),

To DADE. v. a. To hold up by a leading string (Drayton).

DADO, in architecture, the cubical part in the middle of a pedestal between its base and corniche.

DADUCHI, (dadaya, q. d. torch-bearers, priests of Ceres.) Their manner is, at the feasts of this goddess, to run about the temple, with lighted torches, in imitation of Ceres, who, as they relate, sought thus for Proserpine: from this custom arose the name. Among the Athenians, the high-priest of Hercules was also called daduchus.

DÆDAL LEAF, in botany, a leaf at the same time flexuose and lacerated; or winding and torn.

DEDALA, a mountain and city of Lycia, where Daedalus was buried, according to Pliny. Also two festivals in Boeotia, so called ; one of them observed at Alalcomenos by the Plateans in a large grove, where they exposed in the open air pieces of boiled flesh, and carefully observed whither the crows that came to prey

Quadrupedante putrem sonitu quatit ungula upon them directed their flight. All the trees


campum ;

Ferte cito ferrum, date tela, scandite muros.

DACTYLI, in antiquity, a name given to the first priests of Cybele. The word is derived from daxruxos, finger; because their number was then equal to that of the fingers, i. e. ten. These dactyli are generally said, by ancient authors, to be the first who wrought in iron. But respecting them, or the dactyli idæi, as they were often called, the accounts of the ancients differ very widely.

DACTYLIOMANCY, a sort of divination performed by means of a ring. The ring was suspended by a fine thread over a round table, on the edge of which were marked the letters of the alphabet: such of these letters as the ring passed over in vibrating were joined to gether, and composed the required answer.

DACTYLIS. Cocho-foot-grass. In botany, a genus of the class triandria, order digynia. Calyx two-valved, compressed; one of the valves larger and carinate. Fourteen species; scattered over the globe; of which d. stricta and d. glomerata are common to our own country; the former to our sea-marshes, the latter to our meadows. This last, though eaten with relish by horses, sheep, and goats, is refused by cows.

DACTYLONOMY. (from daxrudos, finger, and ros, law.) The art of numbering, or ac. counting, by the fingers. There is every reason to conclude that dactylonomy was the original mode of computation.

DACTYLUS. (dactylus, da×тuñoç, a finger: so called from the likeness of its fruit to a finger.) Rough and adstringent; but when perfectly matured, they are much of the nature of the fig. (See CARICA). Senegal dates are most esteemed, they having a more sugary, agreeable flavour than those of Egypt and other places.

upon which any of these birds alighted were immediately cut down, and with them statues were made, called Dædala, in honour of Dædalus. The other festival was of a more solemn kind. It was celebrated every sixty years by all the cities of Beotia, as a compensation for the intermission of the smaller festivals, for that number of years, during the exile of the Plateans.

DEDALUS, in fabulous history, an Athenian, son of Eupalamus, descended from Erechtheus, king of Athens, was the most ingenious artist of his age, and to him we are indebted for the invention of the wedge, and many other mechanical instruments, and the sails of ships. From envy, he threw his nephew Dalus down from a window and killed him, on account of his ingenuity in the arts. After the murder, Dædalus, with his son Icarus, fled from Athens to Crete, where Minos gave him a cordial reception. Daedalus made a famous labyrinth for Minos, and assisted Pasiphae, the queen, to gratify her unnatural passion for a bull. For this action, Dædalus incurred the displeasure of Minos, who ordered him to be confined in the labyrinth which he had constructed. Here he made himself wings with feathers and wax, and carefully fitted them to his body, and that of his son, who was the companion of his confinement. They took their flight from Crete; and the heat of the sun melted the wax on the wings of Icarus, who flew too high, and he fell into that part of the ocean, which from him has been called the Icarian sea. The father alighted at Cuma in Italy, where he built a temple to Apollo, and thence directed his course to Sicily, where he was kindly received by Cocalus, who reigned over part of the country. Many monuments of his ingenuity in Sicily still existed in the age of Diodorus Siculus. He was despatched by Cocalus, who

was afraid of Minos, who had declared war against him, because he had given an asylum to Eædalns The flight of Dædalus from Crete, with wings, is explained by observing that he was the inventor of sails, which in his age might pass at a distance for wings. (Paus. Diod. Orid, &c.)-There were two statuaries of the same name, one of Sicyon, son of Patroclus, the other a native of Bythinia

D.EMON, 2., a name given by the ancients to certain spirits or genii, which they say appeared to men, either to do them service or to hurt them. According to the philosophers, dæmons held a middle rank between the celestial gods and men on earth, and carried on all intercourse between them; conveying the addresses of men to the gods, and the divine benefits to men. Dæmon is often used generally as equivalent to a deity, and is accordingly applied to fate or fortune, or whatever else was regarded as a god.

The word dæmon is used indifferently in a good and a bad sense. In the former it was very common among the ancient heathens. But it has been generally thought, that by dæmons we are to understand devils, in the Septuagint version of the Old Testament. Others think the word is in that version certainly applied to the ghosts of such dead men as the heathens deified, in Deut. xxxii. 17. Ps. evi. 37. That dæmon often bears the same meaning in the New Testament, is shown by Mr. Joseph Mede, Works, p. 623, &c.

Different orders of dæmons had different stations and employments assigned them by the ancients. Good dæmons were considered as the authors of good to mankind; evil dæmons brought innumerable evils both upon men and beasts. Amongst evil dæmons there was a great distinction with respect to the offices as signed them; some compelled men to wickedness, others stimulated them to madness. See DAMONIAC.

DÆMONIAC. (from dæmon.) A human being whose volition and other mental faculties are overpowered and restrained, and his body possessed and actuated by some created spiritual being of superior power. Such seems to be the determinate sense of the word; but it is disputed whether any of mankind ever were in this unfortunate condition.

It has been urged, that the doctrine of dæmoniacal possessions is manifestly repugnant to the perfections of God, and to that fixed order of causes and effects which we discover in nature, particularly with regard to the human system: but it does not appear to us that this kind of argument rests upon the firmest foundation. It is from the nature of the effect that we come to know the nature of the cause in In the case, then, of dæmoniacs, the fact being admitted that their reason was disordered in a very extraordinary manner, we have to enquire whether the cause be mechanical or spiritual. Now from a due consideration of the nature of such motions and effects as are called mechanical, it very clearly fol

any case.

lows, that the cause, in the instances adduced, cannot be material. Either, then, we must admit that the cause is a separate spirit, or we must formally ascribe the effect of disordering our reason to the Supreme Being. Would it be cominendable to ascribe, upon slight grounds, such hurtful effects to a beneficent and good canse; and particularly to the great First Cause? Let it be remembered, that by denying, in such instances, secondary and imperfect canses, we load the most perfect of beings with all that is mean and unworthy.

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After all, however, we think that the most satisfactory way of deciding the point is, by appealing to the Holy Scriptures. Mede, Bekker, and some other ingenious men, have maintained that the supposed dæmoniacs were only lunatics or epileptics. But let the story of the dæmoniac which is recorded by Luke, ch. iv. be duly considered, and there will appear sufficient reason for adhering to the received interpretation. Is it at all probable that Jesus should personify a lunacy or an epilepsy, and say, Hold thy peace and come out of him?" Is it credible that an evangelist should have been left to ascribe this man's disorder to the spirit of an unclean dæmon, if it were only lunacy or the falling sickness; or that a physician of common sense (as Luke certainly was, to say the least) shonld speak of it as a memorable circumstance that such a distemper did not hurt a man by leaving him? Surely then this story, without seeking for other evidence, must be a convincing proof of the reality of dæmoniacal possession.

DEMONÒMA'NIA. (dæmonomania, dasusuaria, from daqua, a dæmon, and Marie, madness.) That species of melancholy, where the patient supposes himself to be possessed of devils.


In botany. See NARCIS


DAFFODIL (Sea). See PANCRATIUM. To DAFT. v. u. (from do aft.) To toss aside; to throw away slightly: not used (Shakspeare).

DAG. 8. (dague, French.) Not used. 1. A dagger. 2. A hand-gun; a pistol.

To DAG. v. a. (from daggle.) To daggle; to bemire; a low word.

DAGENHAM, a village near Rumford, in Essex, nine wiles from London, remarkable for a breach made by the river Thames, which laid near 50,000 acres of land under water; but after ten years' inundation, and several unsuccessful attempts, it was at last effectually drained by captain Perry, whom the czar Peter of Muscovy had employed in his works at Veronitz, on the river Don. In 1765, a second breach was made, which laid 5,000 acres under water; but, after the works were several times blown up, it was at last stopped, and the banks secured. See Perry's Account of the Stopping of Dagenham Breach, 8vo. 1721.

DAGGER. s. (dague, French.) 1. A short

sword; a poniard (Addison). 2. A blunt blade of iron with a basket hilt, used for defence. 3. The obelisk: as (†).

DAGGERSDRAWING, s. (dagger and draw.) The act of drawing daggers; approach to open violence (Hudibras).

DAGGER-POINTED, DAGGERED, or MUCRONATE, in natural history, ending in a point like that of a dagger. Applied to the leaf of bromelia ananas, and to the calyx. To DA'GGLE. v. a. (from dag, dew.) To dip negligently in mire or water.

To DA'GGLE. v. n. To be in the mire (Pupe).

DA GGLETAIL. a. (daggle and tail.) Bemired; bespattered (Swift).

DAGHESTAN, a province of Asiatic Turkey, having the Caspian sea on the E. the mountains of Caucasus on the W. Circassia on the N. and Shirvan on the S. The inha bitants are Tartars.

DAGHO, an island of the Baltic sea, belonging to Rassia, nine miles long, and six broad. Lat. 58. 44 N. Lon. 22, 56 E.

DAGHO, an episcopal town of Albania, in European Turkey. Lat. 42. 30 N. Lon. 19.

39 E.

DAGON, an idol of the Philistines, mentioned in the Book of Kings. Some authors say, that its uppermost part was like the body of a man, and its undermost like a fish: the Hebrew word dag signifies a fish; yet it must be granted that Dagon may come from Dagan, Le. wheat: and Philo in Eusebius has endered the word Dagon by that of rw, frumentum or frumenti i præses.

The Philistines held Dagon in great veneration, and erected magnificent temples in his bonour. His temple at Gaza must have been very large, since Samson, having pulled down the pillars that supported it, buried more than 3000 in its ruins.

DAGY'SA, in zoology, a genus of the class vermes, order mollusca. Body loose, nayant, angular, tabular, and open at each extremity. One species only: found in the Spanish seas: three inches long and one thick. The difference between this and the genus SULPA, which see, is so trifling, that it is scarcely worth while to continue the distinction. Yet it does not become us, at least in the present work, to introduce any innovation, but only to give the result of general science and investigation, so far as they have successfully proceeded. The worms of this genus have a peculiar power of adhering to each other by their sides.

DAHALAE, in geography, an island in the Red sea, near the coast of Abyssinia. Its whole length from N. W. to S. E. is thirtyseven miles, and its greatest breadth eighteen. DAHL, the finest river of Sweden, which flows through Dalecarlia and on the S. confines of Gestricia, and falls into the gulf of Bothnia, to the E. of Gesle. Near Escarleby, it forms a celebrated cataract, scarce inferior to the fall of the Rhine at Lauffen.

DAHLIA, in botany. This genus was established by the late Cavanilles, in honour of

Dr. Andrew Dahl, a Swedish botanist, and the friend of baron Alstromer. It belongs to the class syngenesia, order polygamia frustranea, at least in this cold climate. The stems die every winter, but the root is perennial and tuberous, not very dissimilar to that of the artichoke. Four species have been described. 1. D. pinnata, pinnated as it is called, and figured by Cavanilles in his Icones, Plate v. 1. tab. 80. It is also figured under this name in the fourth volume of Andrews's Botanical Repository. In the Annales du Mus. National Hist. Nat. v. 3. M. Thouin calls this species purpurea, but its colour varies from the common pinnata, being very deep; and Mr. R. A. Salisbury suspects that this purpurea of Thouin is the true rosea of Cavanilles. A paler coloured variety of the pinnata, the seeds of which were sent to Holland-house with the name of rosea by Cavanilles, has been lately figured by Mr. Hooker in the Paradisus Londinensis, and described by the above-mentioned botanist, under the name of sambucifolia : that it is not the true rosea of Cavanilles, is unquestionable; for the leaves were simply pinnate, not bipinnate.

2. D. rosea.

Rose coloured. It is so called and figured by Cavanilles in his Icones; but the plant called rosea by M. Thouin in the Annales, is most probably the very variety of the first species figured by the name of sambucifolia in the Paradisus Londinensis.

3. D. coccinea. Scarlet. This is figured in Curtis's publication; but we entertain a doubt if it is the same with Cavanilles's plant, if the colour is well copied. The plant, we understand, is dead.

4. D. crocata. Saffron-coloured. This plant is not mentioned in any work previous to the Paradisus Londinensis, where it is figured and described by the name of bidentifolia. Though the parcels of seeds which came from Cavanilles himself had the title of crocata, the flowers turned out yellow.

It is not intended here to describe minutely these plants; it is sufficient to say, that they elevate themselves majestically like the holyhock, and bear both axillary and terminal showy flowers late in the autuinn.

DAHOMEY, or DAUMA, a country of Africa, on the slave coast, situated about sixty or seventy miles from the Atlantic; called also Fouin. Dahomey, as known at present, is supposed to reach from the sea-coast about 150 or 200 miles inland, though no European has penetrated above half that distance. The capital, Abomey, lies in about nine degrees and fifty minutes of north latitude, and between the third and fourth degree of east longitude reckoned from the meridian of Greenwich. The soil is a deep, rich clay, of a reddish colour, with a little sand on the surface, except about Calmina, where it is more light and gravelly; but there is not to be found a stone so big as an egg in the whole country, so far as it has been visited by the Europeans: of farinaceous vegetables the country yields a plentiful supply, proportionable to the quantity of culture;


namely maize, millet, or Guinea-corn of dif-
ferent sorts; a kind of peas, or rather kidney-
beans, called callavances; and also a species of
beans, called ground-beans. The Dahomans,
likewise, cultivate yams, potatoes of two sorts,
the cassada, or manioka, the plantain, and the
banana. Pine-apples, melons, oranges, limes,
guavas, and other tropical fruits, also abound
in this fertile country. Nor is it destitute of
productions adapted for commerce and manu-
facture; such as indigo, cotton, the sugar-cane,
tobacco, palm oil, together with a variety of
spices, particularly a species of pepper, very
similar in flavour, and indeed scarcely distin-
guishable from the black pepper of the East
Indies. A very curious fruit is produced in
Daliomey, as well as in some other parts of
Africa, which resembles a small olive in every
respect but the colour; being of a dusky red-
dish hue, changing at the end next the stalk to
a faint yellow; the pulp is firm, and almost
insipid; the stone is hard like that of the olive.
After having chewed one or more of such
berries, and spit out or swallowed the pulp at
pleasure, a glass of vinegar will taste, to the
person trying the experiment, like sweet wine;
a lime will seem to have the flavour of a very
ripe China orange; and the same change is
produced in other acids, without effervescence,
or any sensible motion. The Dahomans, like
the other inhabitants of tropical climates, plant
twice a year, viz. at the vernal and autumnal
equinoxes; after which the periodical rains
prevail. The language is that which the Por-
tuguese call Lingua Geral, or General Tongue,
and is spoken not only in Dahomey Proper,
but in Whydah, and the other dependent
states; and likewise in Mahee, and several
neighbouring places. With respect to the
Dahoman religion, it consists of a jumble of
superstitious ceremonies, of which it is impos-
sible to convey any satisfactory idea.
government is perhaps the most perfect despo-
fism on earth. See farther Archibald Dalzel's
History of Dahomey, 4to.

DAHOON HOLLY. In botany.
In botany.

DAILY. a. (daglie, Saxón.) Happening
every day; quotidian (Prior).

DAILY. ad. Every day; very often (Spenser).
DAINTILY. ad, (from dainty.) 1. Ele-
gantly; delicately (Bacon). 2. Deliciously;
pleasantly (Howe!).

DAINTINESS. 8. (from dainty.) 1. Delicacy; softness (Ben Jonson). 2. Elegance; nicety (Wotton). 3. Delicacy; deliciousness (Hakewill). 4. Squeamishness; fastidiousness (Wotton). 5. Ceremoniousness; scrupulosity

DAINTY, a. (dain, old French, delicate.) 1. Pleasing to the palate; delicious (Bacon). 2. Delicate; nice; squeamish (Davies). 3. Scrupulous ceremonious (Shakspeare). 4. Elegant; effeminately beautiful (Milton). 5. Nice; affectedly fine (Prior).

DAINTY. 8, 1. Something nice; a delicacy (Pope). 2. A word of fondness formerly in use (Shakspeare).

DA'IRY, 8. (from dey, an old word for milk). 1. The occupation or art of making various kinds of food from milk (Temple). 2. The place where milk is manufactured. 3. Pasturage; milk farm (Bacon).

DAIRY-HOUSE, or DAIRY, in rural economy, a place appropriated to the management of milk, butter, cheese, &c. See MILK, BUTTER, CHEESE, CHURN, and Cows.

A dairy ought to be so situated, that the windows, or lattices, may never front the south, south-east, or south-west; and it should at all times be kept in the neatest order. Lattices are also far preferable to glazed lights, as they admit a free circulation of the air. It has, however, been objected, that the former afford access to the cold air of winter, and to the sun in summer; but either may be easily remedied, by making the frame somewhat larger than the lattice, and constructing it so as to slide backward and forward at pleasure. Across this frame, packthread may be stretched, and oiled paper pasted on it, which will thus admit the light, and effectually keep out the sun and wind.

During the summer, dairy-houses cannot be kept too cool; they ought therefore to be erected, if possible, near a cold spring, or running water; and, where it is practicable to conduct a small stream through the premises, it will much contribute to the convenience and utility of the place. Dr. Anderson observes, in his Practical Essay on the Management of the Dairy (published in the third and fourth volumes of his Recreations in Agriculture, &c.) that, if the water can be introduced by means of a pipe, so as to fall from some height on the floor, it will be productive of many advantages, particularly by preserving a continual freshness and purity of the air. Dairy-houses should therefore be neatly paved, either with red brick, or smooth hard stone, and laid with a proper descent, so that no water may stagnate. This pavement should be well washed every day during the summer; and all the utensils, here employed, be kept with unremitting attention to cleanliness. Nor should the churns be at any time scalded in the dairy; as the steam arising from hot water tends greatly to injure the milk. For similar reasons, neither the cheese and rennet, nor the cheese-press, must be suffered to taint the atmosphere; as the whey and curd will diffuse their acidity over the whole building.

All the utensils of the dairy should be made of wood, in preference either to lead, copper, or cast-iron; for these metals are easily soluble in acids; the solutions of the two first are in a high degree poisonous; and though the latter is in itself harmless, the taste of it renders the productions of the dairy very disagreeable. The cream-dishes, when perfectly clean and cool, ought to be filled with the milk, as soon as it is drawn from the cow, and has been carefully strained through a cloth, or cloth-sieve made of hair or silver-wire; the latter of which, as Dr. Anderson justly remarks, is more wholesome than those of other metals. These dishes

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