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dared. (deannan, Saxon.) To have courage for any purpose; not to be afraid; to be adventurous (Dryden).

To DARE, v. a. pret. I dared. To challenge; to defy (Roscommon).

To DARE LARKS. To catch them by means of a looking-glass (Carew).

DARE. 8. Defiance; challenge (Shaks ). DA'REA, in botany, a genus of the class cryptogamia, order filices. Fructification in scattered, nearly marginal lines: involucre originating laterally from a vein opening to wards the margin. Nine species.

DA'REFUL. a. (dare and full.) Full of defiance: not in use (Shakspeare).

DARENT, a river of England, in the county of Kent, which runs into the Thames, three miles N. Dartford. The mouth near the Thames is called Dartford Creek.

DAR-FUR, a country in the interior part of Africa, extending, according to Mr. Brown's map, from about 11 to 15. 20 N. lat., and in its greatest breadth from 26 to 29. 15 E. lon. The capital of the country is called Cobbé. For a minute description of this country, the reader may consult Brown's Travels in Africa, &c. from the year 1792 to 1798.

DARIC, in antiquity, a famous piece of gold, first coined by Darius the Mede, about 538 years before Christ; probably during his stay at Babylon. From thence it was dispersed over the East, and also into Greece; so that the Persian daric, which was also called stater, was the gold coin best known in Athens in ancient times. According to Dr. Bernard, it weighed two grains more than one of our guineas; but as it was very fine, and contained little alloy, it may be reckoned worth about 258. of our money.

DARIEN, or the isthmus of PANAMA, a narrow neck of land, which joins North to South America. It is also the name of a province of Terra Firma, and lies in the form of a crescent about the Bay of Panama. This province is not the richest, though it is of the greatest importance to Spain, and has been the scene of more actions than any other place in the whole contiuent of America. The immense treasures of Pern are brought hither, and thence exported to Europe. This circum stance has induced many enterprising people to make attempts on Panama, Porto Bello, and other towns of this province, in hopes of obtaining a considerable booty,

DARIEN, in Georgia, North America, so called by the Scots Highlanders, who settled there in 1736. This settlement is by the side of the river Alatamala, about twelve miles from the sea, where they raised a fort, &c.

DARII, in logic, one of the modes of syllogism of the first figure, wherein the major proposition is an universal affirmative, and the minor and conclusion particular affirmatives: thus,

DA- Every thing that is moved is moved by another;

RI

Some body is moved : VOL. IV.

1. Therefore some body is moved by another.

DA'RING a. (from dare.) Bold; adventurous; fearless; courageous (Prior). DARINGLY, ad. Boldly; courageously; fearlessly (Halifax).

DARINGNESS. 8. (from during.) Bold

ness.

DARIUS, a noble satrap of Persia, son of Hystaspes; who conspired with six other noblemen to destroy Smerdis, who usurped the crown of Persia after the death of Cambyses. On the murder of the usurper, the conspirators agreed, that he whose horse neighed first should be appointed king. The groom of Darius previously led his master's horse to a mare, at a place near which the seven noblemen were to pass. On the morrow before sun-rise, when they proceeded all together, the horse recollecting the mare, suddenly neighed. The noblemen dismounted from their horses, and saluted Darius king. Darius was 29 years old when he ascended the throne, and he soon distinguished himself by his military accomplishinents. He besieged Babylon, which he took, after a siege of 20 months. From thence he marched against the Scythians, and in his way conquered Thrace, but after several disasters in the wilds of Scythia, retired with shame, and turned his arms against the Indians, whom he subdued. The burning of Sardis, a Grecian colony, incensed the Athenians, and a war was kindled between Greece and Persia, and Mardonius, the king's son-in-law, was entrusted with the care of the war, but his army was destroyed by the Thracians; and Darius, more animated by his loss, sent a more considerable force, under the command of Datis and Artaphernes. They were conquered at the celebrated battle of Marathon, by 10,000 Athenians; and the Persians lost in that expedition no less than 200,000 men. Darius then resolved to carry on the war in person, and immediately ordered a still larger army to be levied : he died in the midst of his preparations, B.C. 485, after a reign of 36 years, in the 65th year of his age. (Herodot. Justin, &c.) The second king of Persia of that name was called Ochus or Nothns, because he was the illegitimate son of Artaxerxes, by a concubine. He carried on many wars with success, under the conduct of his generals, and of his son Cyrns. He died B.C. 401, after a reign of 19 years, and was succeeded by his son Artaxerxes. (Justin, &c.) The third of that name was the last king of Persia, surnamed Codomanus. He was the son of Arsaces and Sysi. gambis, and descended from Darius Nothius. The eunuch Bagons raised him to the throne, but afterwards prepared to poison hian. Das rius discovered his perfidy, and made him drink the poison which he had prepared against his life. The peace of Darius was early disturbed by Alexander, who invaded Persia to avenge the injuries which the Greeks had suffered from the predecessors of Darius. The king of Persia met his adversary in person, at the head

C

of 600,000 men.

This army was remarkable more for its opulence and luxury, than for military courage. With these forces Darins met Alexander. A battle was fought near the Granicus, in which the Persians were easily defeated. Another was soon after fought near Issus; and Alexander left 110,000 of the . enemy dead in the field of battle, and took, among the prisoners of war, the mother, wife, and children of Darius. The darkness of the night favoured the retreat of Darius, who saved himself by flying in disguise. These losses weakened, but discouraged not Darius: he assembled another more powerful army, and the last decisive battle was fought at Arbela. The victory was long doubtful; but the intrepidity of Alexander, and the superior vaJour of the Macedonians, prevailed over the effeinate Persians; and Darius, sensible of his ruin, fled towards Media. His misfortunes were now increased. Bessus, the governor of Bactriana, took away his life, in hopes of succeeding him on the throne; and Darius was found by the Macedonians in his chariot, covered with wounds, and almost expiring, B.C. 331. In him the empire of Persia was extinguished, 22 years after it had been first founded by Cyrus the Great.

DARK. a. (reone, Saxon.) 1. Not light; wanting light (Waller). 2. Not of a showy or vivid colour (Boyle). 3. Blind; without the enjoyment of light (Dryden). 4. Opake; not transparent. 5. Obscure; not perspicuous (Hooker). 6. Not enlightened by knowJedge; ignorant (Denham). 7. Gloomy; not cheerful (Addison).

DARK. 8. 1. Darkness; obscurity; want of light (Shakspeare). 2. Obscurity; condition of one unknown (Atterbury). 3. Want of knowledge (Locke).

To DARK. v. a. (from the noun.) To darken; to obscure: obsolete (Spenser). DARK-CHAMBER. See CAMERA OB

SCURA.

To DARKEN. v. a. (from dark). 1. To make dark; to deprive of light (Addison). 2. To clo d; to perplex (Bacon). 3. To foul; to sully (Tillotson).

To DARKEN, v. n. To grow dark. DARKING, or DORKING, a town in Surrey, with a market on Thursdays. Lat. 51. 17 N. Lon. 0. 14 W.

DARKLING. (a kind of diminutive from dark.) Being in the dark (Shakspeare).

DARKLY. ad. (from dark.) In a sitnation void of light; obscurely; blindly (Dryden).

DARKNESS. s. (from dark.) 1. Absence of light (Genesis). 2. Opakeness; want of transparency. 3. Obscurity; want of perspicuity. 4. Infernal gloom; wickedness (Shakspeare). 5. State of being intellectually dark; ignorance; uncertainty (Locke). 6. The empire of Satan (Colossians).

DARKSOME. a. (from dark.) Gloomy; obscure; not luminous (Pope).

DARLING. a. (deopling, Saxon.) Favourite; dear; beloved (L'Estrange).

DARLING, 8. A favourite: one much be loved Halifax).

DARLINGTON, a town in the county of Darlam, with a market on Mondays. It contains 4670 inhabitants: has a manufacture of huckabacks and camlets; and is seated on the Skerne, over which is a long stone bridge. Lat. 54. 32 N. Lon. 1. 25 W.

DARMSTADT, a town of Hesse Darmstadt, in the upper circle of the Rhine, Germany. Lat. 49. 43 N. Lon. S. 40 E.

To DARN. v. a. (See DEARN.) To mend holes by imitating the texture of the stuff (Gay). See LoLIUM.

DARNEL, in botany.

To DA'RRAIN. r. a. 1. To range troops for battle (Care. 2. To apply to the sight (Spenser).

DART. 8. (dard, French.) A missile weapon thrown by the hand (Shakspeare). DART, in astronomy and geometry. See SAGITTA.

To DART. r. a. (from the noun.) 1. To throw offensively (Dryden). 2. To throw; to omit (Pope).

To DART. v. a. 1. To fly as a dart (Shakspeare). 2. To let fly with hostile intention (Shakspeare).

DART, a river in Devonshire, which rises at the foot of Dartmoor hills, crosses Dartmoor to Ashburton, and after passing Totness, where it is navigable for small vessels, is joined by the Harebourn, and falls into the English Channel at Dartmouth.

DARTER, in ornithology. See PLOTUS. DARTFORD, in geography, a market town in Kent, having a market on Saturdays. It is situated on the Dover road, about 15 miles from London. The inhabitants amount to more than 2400: the principal manufactories are gunpowder and paper.

DARTMOOR, an extensive moorish tract, in Devonshire, bonnded on the N. by bleak hills, and extending southward quite through the centre of the county to the sea.. It contains about 80,000 acres, and is watered by the river Dart. Many sheep are bred here, but of a small kind, and subject to the rot. The chief riches of the inhabitants are their black cattle, which thrive well on the coarse sour herbage. On this moor there are erected large prisons, from the designs of Mr. D. Alexander, a wellknown scientific architect, for the reception of persons captured in time of war. A view of these prisons is given in Vancouver's History of Devonshire.

DARTMOUTH, a seaport town of England, situated at the mouth of the Dart, on the English channel; said to have been formerly called Clifton. It is an ancient corporation and a borough town, sending two members to the British parliament. The harbour is safe, and large enough to contain 500 ships. Here live several considerable merchants, who send out vessels to Newfoundland for fish, which they dispose of in Italy, Spain, Portugal, &c. loading back with wine, fruit, oil, &c. It has a weekly market on Friday, for corn and pro

visions, and one almost every day for fish: thirty-one miles S. Exeter, and 201 W.S.W. London. Lon. 3. 35 W. Lat. 50. 17 N. DARTMOUTH, a town of United America, in the state of New Hampshire: 100 miles NW. of Boston. Lon. 72. 13 W. Lat. 43. 15 N.

DARWIN (Erasmus, M.D.), a celebrated physician, philosopher, and poet, was born at Elston, near Newark, in Nottinghamshire, Dec. 12, 1731. He received his early education at Chesterfield school, and was from thence removed to St. John's college, Cambridge: being intended for the medical profession, he took the degree of M.B. in 1755, defending in his thesis an opinion that the motion of the heart and arteries is produced by the stimulus of the blood. After he left college he attended the lectures of Dr. Hunter, and then went through a diligent courseof studyat Edinburgh. He first settled as a physician at Nottingham; bat meeting with little success he soon removed to Litchfield, where he resided many years, enjoying a very extensive reputation and a very profitable practice. In the year 1757 he married Miss Mary Howard, daughter of Charles Howard, esq.: by this lady he had five children, two of whom died young; she died in 1770. Soon after the decease of his wife, Dr. Darwin commenced his laborious work the Zoonomia, which, however, he did not think proper to publish till about 1794. In the year 1780 he married Mrs. Pole, the relict of colonel Pole, of Radbourne hall, near Derby; which occasioned his removal, first to Radbourne, and thence to Derby, where he resided till within a few months of his death. He died April 18th, 1802, at Breadwall Priory, in the 71st year of his age. Besides the Zoonomia, or Laws of Organic Life, in 2 vols. 4to. the doctor published, The Loves of the Plants; The Botanic Garden; The Phytologia, and a Plan for Female Education in Boarding-schools; he also communicated various papers to the Philosophical Transactions, and published some lighter works which need not here be enumerated. Dr. Darwin displayed much learning, taste, and genius, in his different performances; but almost all his powers were subjected to his fancy, which indeed often led him to adopt the most romantic and singular, and sometimes dangerous, opinions. There was one great end, we are told, to the attainment of which all his talents and views were earnestly and uniformly directed. He did not hesitate openly and repeatedly to declare in public company, that the acquisition of wealth was the leading object of all his literary undertakings! He once said to a friend: "I have gained 9001. by my Botanic Garden, and 9007, by the 1st volume of Zoo. Domia; and if I can every other year produce a work which will yield this suni, I shall do very well. Money, and not fame, is the object I have in view in all my publications." Those who wish to see a complete refutation of the sophisms contained in the Zoonomia will read with pleasure, Observations on the Zoonomia of Dr. Darwin, by Thomas Brown, esq. See

also, for an examination of the nature of his poetry, and the tendency of his philosophy, the account of his Temple of Nature, in No. 4 of the Edinburgh Review. In the 7th No. of the same Review, in a critique on Miss Seward's Memoirs of Dr. Darwin, reference is made to an anonymous philosophical poem called Universal Beauty, published in 1735, which is stamped incontrovertibly with all the peculiar characters of what has since been called the Darwinian school.

DARWINIAN THEORY. As we have given a distinct article to the theory of Dr. Brown under the title of Brunonian Theory, we are compelled, in point of consistency, to devote a similar article to that of Dr. Darwin. Yet the resemblance between the two is so considerable that, having already stated the former, the latter may be discussed in very few words. In reality Darwin himself was fond of commenting upon this similarity, though he was far from relinquishing the originality of his own pretensions: it was his common boast that he was a Brunonian before ever Brown had published a syllable.

The attempt of Darwin was to include in one scheme both general principles and particular facts; and to trace the excitability of the Brunonian theory, and which its author only contemplated as an ultimate resting place, to its actual origin. The excitability of Brown is in the Darwinian dialect denominated sensorial power or spirit of animation; and is conceived to be "a subtile fluid residing in the brain and nerves, and liable to general or partial accumulation." The vital changes effected by this imaginary fluid are :

1st. Irritation; "which is an exertion or change of some extreme part of the sensorium residing in the muscles or organs of sense, in consequence of the appulses of external bodies." 2d. Sensation; which is "an exertion or change of the central parts of the sensorium or of the whole of it, beginning at some extreme parts of it which reside in the muscles or organs of sense."

3d. Volition; "an exertion or change of the central parts of the sensorium or of the whole of it, terminating in some extreme parts of it which reside in the muscles or organs of sense."

4th. Association; "an exterior or change of some extreme part of the sensorium, resid ing in the muscies or organs of sense in consequence of some antecedent or attendant fibrous contractions."

With these assumptions as his guide, Darwin endeavoured to penetrate deeper into the cause of disease than is allowed by a mere knowledge of the condition of the fibre. The powers of the sensorium are the proximate cause; the fibrous action, the excitement of Brown, the proximate effect. And hence by means of an ingenious but highly unsatisfactory statement of the mode by which excitations are produced, he treats of diseases as occasioned by the comparative redundancy, or deficiency of the sensorial power of irritation, sensation, volition,

or association; these four terms constituting the four classes into which he divides his nosology, and the two opposite measures of redundancy and deficiency, the two orders of which each class, excepting indeed the last, which is differently divided, consists.

The grand errors in this theory proceed from its not sufficiently distinguishing between canse and effect, between the motion and its source; in substituting mere statements of phenomena for explanations of their origin; and, what is of far more consequence, in attempting to divide that which in itself is indivisible.

Plausible and even splendid therefore as this theory is to the superficial observer, it has already fallen a sacrifice to these radical defects, and may almost be said to have been buried in the same grave with its author. Yet how different was the result to which the author himself looked forward! It is thus he concludes his Zoonomia, which he flattered himself would have lived as long as the earth, and have been diffused to as great an extent: "Thus have I given an outline of what may be termed the sympathetic theory of fevers, to distinguish it from the mechanic theory of Boerhaave, the spasmodic theory of Hoffman, and of Cullen, and the putrid theory of Pringle. What I have thus delivered, I beg to be considered rather as observations and conjectures, than as things explained and demonstrated; to be considered as a foundation and a scaffolding, which may enable future industry to erect à solid and a beantiful edilice, eminent both for its simplicity and utility, as well as for the permanency of its materials which may not inoulder, like the structures already erected, into the sand of which they were composed; but which may stand unimpaired, like the Newtonian philo sophy, a rok amid the waste of ages!"

To DASH. v. a. (etymology doubtful.) I. To throw or strike any thing suddenly against something (Tillotson) 2. To break by collision (Shakspeare). 3. To throw water in flashes (Mortimer). 4. To bespatter; to besprinkle (Shakspeare). 5. To agitate any li quid, so as to make the surface fly off. 6. To mingle; to adulterate (Hudibras). 7. To form or sketch in haste, carelessly (Pope). 8. To obliterate; to blot ; to cross out (Pope). 9. To confound; to make ashamed suddenly; to depress; to suppress (Pope).

To Dash. v. n. 1. To fly off the surface by a violent motion (Cheyne). 2. To fly in flashes with a loud noise (Thomson). 3. To rush through water, so as to make it fly (Dryden).

DASI. 8. (from the verb.) 1. Collision (Thomson). 2. Infusion (Addison). 3. A mark in writing; a line (Brown). 4. Stroke; blow: ludicrous (Shakspeare).

DASH. ad. An expression of the sound of water dashed (Dryden).

DASSEN EYLAND, or the ISLE of DEER, one of three small islands to the N. of the Cape of Good Hope. Here are sheep whose tails on an average weigh 18 pounds. Lat. 33. 25 S. Lon. 18. 7 E.

DA'STARD. 8. (adastrıza, Saxon.) A coward; a poltroon (Locke).

To DA'STARD. v. a. To terrify; to intimidate; to desert with cowardice (Dryden).

To DA'STARDISE. v. a. (from dastard.) To intimidate; to deject with cowardice (Dryden).

DA'STARDLY. a. (from dastard). Cowardly; mean; timorons (L'Estrange). D'ASTARDY. 8. Cowardliness; timorous

ness.

DASYPHUS. Armadillo. In zoology, a genus of the class mammalia, order bruta. Tuskless; grinders short, cylindrical; in each jaw seven or eight: body covered with a bony shell intersected by zones. Ten species: all natives of South America; yet one, d. septemcinctus, found also in India. They feed on roots, melons, potatoes, flesh, fishes, insects and worms; rest by day, and wander about by night; burrow in the ground; are gentle; defend themselves by rolling into a globular form; the females produce monthly: flesh eatable. They are distinguished into species by the number of bands they possess around their body; the shell, or very curious and complete coat of armour, being in this manner peculiarly and most beautifully divided and in every instance affording so perfect a coat of armiour, that when they are completely coiled up, they are almost beyond the reach of danger. The following may serve as examples.

1. D. tricinctus. Three-banded armadillo. Bands three, moveable; toes five; scales knobbed on the surface; eyes small; ears rounded, short; head oblong, covered by a helmet of one piece; two middle claws of the fore-feet large, length a foot. Inhabits Brazil: feeds on fruit and poultry.

2. D. octocinctus. Eight-banded armadillo. Bands eight; shields two, sprinkled with prominal white knobs; bands spotted triangularly; back iron-grey; sides whitish-grey, spotted with iron grey; belly whitish. Inhabits Brazil; flesh delicious.

3. D. longicandus. Long-tailed armadillo. Bauds nine; tail long, jointed. Inhabits America; about the size of a cat. See Nat. Hist. Pl. LXXI.

DATA, among mathematicians, a term for such things or quantities as are given or known, in order to find other things thereby that are unknown. Euclid uses the word data for such spaces, lines, and angles as are given in magnitude, or to which we can assign others equal. From the primary use of the word data in mathematics, it has been transplanted into other arts; as philosophy, medicine, &c. where it expresses any quantity, which, for the sake of a present calculation, is taken for granted to be such, without requiring an immediate proof for its certainty; called also the given quantity, number, or power. And hence also such things as are known, from whence either in natural philosophy, the animal mechanisin, or the operation of medicines, we come to the knowledge of others unknown,

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DATA OF EUCLID, the first in order of the books that have been written by the ancient geometricians, to facilitate and promote the method of resolution or analysis. In general, a thing is said to be given which is either actually exhibited, or can be found out, that is, which is either known by hypothesis, or that can be demonstrated to be known: and the propositions in the book of Euclid's data shew what things can be found out or known, from those that by hypothesis are already known: so that in the analysis or investigation of a problem, from the things that are laid down as given or known, by the help of these propositions, it is demonstrated that other things are given, and from these last that others again are given, and so on, till it is demonstrated that that which was proposed to be found out in the problem is given; and when this is done, the problem is solved, and its composition is made and derived from the compositions of the data which were employed in the analysis. And thus the data of Euclid are of the most general and necessary use in the solution of problems of every kind.

Marinus, at the end of his preface to the Data, is mistaken in asserting that Euclid has not used the synthetical, but the analytical method in delivering them: for though in the analysis of a theorem, the thing to be demonstrated is assumed in the analysis; yet in the demonstrations of the data, the thing to be demonstrated, which is, that something is given, is never once assumed in the demonstration; from which it is manifest, that every one of them is demonstrated synthetically: though indeed if a proposition of the data be turned into a problem, the demonstration of the proposition becomes the analysis of the problem. (Simson's preface to his edition of the Data.) DA'TARY. 8. (datarius.) An officer of the chancery of Rome.

DATE. 8. (datte, Fr. datum, Lat.) 1. The time at which a letter is written, marked at the end or the beginning. 2. The time at which any event happened. 3. The time stipulated when any thing shall be done (Shakspeare). 4. End; conclusion (Pope). 5. Duration; continuance (Denham).

To DATE. v. a. (from the noun.) To note with the time at which any thing is written or done (Bentley).

DATE-TREE. See PHENIX.

DATE-PLUM (Indian). See Diospyros. DA'TELESS. a. (from date.) Without any fixed term (Shakspeare).

DATHOLITE. A translucent siliceous mineral, lately discovered by M. Esmark, at Ahrendal in Norway. Colour, greyish and greenish-white passing into mountain-green. Lustre, shining internally between vitreous and resinous. Fracture small, and imperfectly conchoidal. It is found in large masses, with coarse granular concretions; its more perfect crystals are small, regular, tetrahedral prisms, with truncated angles. It is very hard, and

its specific gravity 2.98. According to Klaproth, the following is its composition: 36.5 silex

35.5 lime.

24. boracic acid. 4. loss.

100.

DATISCA. Bastard-hemp. In botany, a genus of the class diœcia, order dodecandria. Male: calyx five-leaved; corolless; anthers fifteen, long, sessile. Fein.: two toothed; corolless; styles two; capsule inferior, threesided, three-horned, one-celled, pervious, many-seeded. Two species.

1. D. cannabina; a native of Canada, with stem smooth.

2. D. hirta; a native of Pennsylvania, with rough, hairy stem.

DATISI, in logic, a mode of syllogisms in the third figure, wherein the major is an universal affirmative, and the minor and conclusion particular affirmative propositions. For example,

DA- All who serve God are kings;
TI- Some who serve God are poor;

SI.

Therefore some who are poor are kings.

DATIVE, among grammarians, the third case in the declension of nouns. It is called dative, because usually governed by a verb implying something to be given to some person. In English, the dative is expressed by the signs to or for.

DĂTURA. Thorn-apple. In botany, a genus of the class pentandria, order monogynia. Corol funnel-form, plaited; calyx tubular, angular, deciduous: capsule superior, two-celled, four-valved. Seven species-scattered over the globe: of which the chief are,

1. D. stramonium. Common thorn-apple, found in the wastes of our own country, with spinous, erect, ovate pericarps; ovate, glabrous leaves. It rises about a yard high with a strong perpendicular, round, hollow, green stalk, branching luxuriantly, and to a great extent; at night the upper leaves become erect and inclose the flowers, which have sometimes a tinge of purple or violet. The flowers consist of one large funnel-shaped petal, succeeded by large roundish capsules of the size of middling apples, closely beset with sharp spines which constitute what is called the thorn-apple. For the medical virtues of this plant see STRAMONIUM; under which name it is usually desig nated in our pharmacopoeias.

2. D. arborea. A tall tree of Peru, with glabrous leaves, hollow herbaceous stem; glabrous nodding pericarps without spines; large fragrant flowers.

ĎAVA'LLIA. In botany, a genus of the class cryptogamia, order filices. Fructification in roundish distinct dots near the margin; involucre membranaceous, from the surface halfhooded, distinct, somewhat truncate, opening towards the margin. Nineteen species.

To DAUB. v. a. (dabben, Dutch.) 1. To

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