log AB=logCD+log sin c + log sin D + log cosec (C-D) - 30 [in the index of the log]. Thus, log CD log sin c....14° 8'. 9-3851924 log sin D log cosec (C-D) 10° 7'..10-7553442 The sum - 30, is log AB 166-857 feet 2-2223462 This method is, obviously, applicable to all similar examples. 3d Method. If AB were radius, CD would evidently be the difference of the tangents of BAD and BAC, or, of the cotan gents of BDA and BCA. Hence AB = Thus, nat cot D=14-543833 nat cot c = 3-995922 CD cot D-cot c From the comparison of these three methods, it will appear that the second ought to have the preference to the first: and that, considering the time employed in looking out the logarithms, the third method is preferable to the second. EXAMPLE V. Wanting to know the height of a church steeple, to the bottom of which I could not measure on account of a high wall between me and the church, I fixed upon two stations at the distance of 93 feet from each other, on a horizontal line from the bottom of the steeple, and at each of them took the angle of elevation of the top of the steeple, that is, at the nearest station 55° 54', at the other 33° 20′. Required the height of the steeple. This is similar to exam. 4, and being worked by the 2d method, the height of the steeple is found to be 110-27 feet. EXAMPLE VI. Wishing to know the height of an obelisk standing at the top of a regularly sloping hill, I first measured from its bottom a distance of 36 feet, and there found the angle formed by the inclined plane and a line from the centre of the instrument to the top of the obelisk 41°; but after measuring on downward in the same sloping direction 54 feet, farther, I found the angle formed in like manner to be only 23° 45'. What was the height of the obelisk, and what the angle made by the sloping ground with the horizon? The figure being constructed, as in the margin, there are given in the triangle ACB, all the angles and the side AB, to find BC. It will be obtained by this proportion, as sin c (= 17° 15′ = B-A): AB (=54) :: sin A (= 23°45′) : вс = 73-3392. Then, in the triangle A DBC are known BC as above, BD = 36, H C D B E CBD = 41; to find the other angles, and the side CD. Thus, first, as CB + BD: CB-BD :: tan (D + C) = (139°): tan (D-C) = 42° 24'. Hence 69° 30′ + 42°24′= 112° 54° = CDB, and 69°30′ 42° 24 = 26° 5 = BCD. Then, sin BCD: BD :: sin CBD: CD = 51-86, height of the obelisk. 2 The angle of inclination DAE = HDA = CDB - 90° = 22° 54′. Remark. If the line BD cannot be measured, then the angle DAE of the sloping ground must be taken, as well as the angles CAB, and CBD. In that case DAE + 90° will be equal to CDB: so that after cs is found from the triangle ACB, CD may be found in the triangle CBD, by means of the relation between sides and the sines of their opposite angles. EXAMPLE VII. Being on a horizontal plane, and wanting to ascertain the height of a tower standing on the top of an inaccessible hill, I took the angle of elevation of the top of the hill 40°, and of the top of the tower 51°, then measuring in a direct line 180 feet farther from the hill, I took in the same vertical plane the angle of elevation of the top of the tower 33° 45′. Required from hence the height of the tower. The figure being constructed, as in the margin, there are given, AB = 180, CAB = 33° 45′ ACB CBE-CAE = 17° 15′ CBD = 119, BDC = 180° (90° - DBE) = 130°. And CD may be found by two proportions, viz. A B C D E 1st. As sin ACB: AB :: Sin CAB: CB, and 2dly, as sin D :CB:: Sin CBD: CD. This process would require eight lines. But the operation may be shortened; for, by the principles of method 2, exam. 4, we shall have CD rad4 AB Sin A sin CBD COSEC ACB SEC DED In logarithms thus: log AB...... 180..... 2-2552725 33° 45′ 9-7447390 11° 0 9-2805988 sin A ...... ....... .. .. sin B .. The sum - 40, is log CD.. 83:9983 feet.. 1.9242707 EXAMPLE VIII. At the top of a castle which stood on a hill near the sea-shore, the angle of depression of a ship at anchor was observed to be 4° 52'; at the bottom of the castle the angle of depression was 4° 2'. Required the horizontal distance of the vessel, and the height of the hill on which the castle stands above the level of the sea, the castle itself being 60 feet high. In the annexed diagram, where нт, ов, are parallel, and AT per- 0 ABS = 85° 58'; to find as and AB. Here method 2, exam. 4, is obviously applicable: so that we have ATS) As. rad3 = BT sin ATS Sin ABS cosec (ABS log тв.....60 1.7781513 log тв.....60 1.7781513 sin ATS 85°8′ 9-9984315 sin ATS 85° 8′ 9-9984315 Sin ABS 85°58′ 9-9989230 COS ABS 85°58′ 8-8471827 cosec (в-т) 50′11-8371392 cosec (в-т) 50′11-8373192 log as 4100-4 ft. 3-6128250 log AB 289-12 ft. 2-4610847 2 EXAMPLE IX. B Wanting to know the distance of an object at D from two others A and B in the same horizontal plane, as well as the distance between A and B, a pole was set up at c in a right line with AB, and the angle ACD was found to be 57°. The dis-C A tance CD being measured was found to be 549-36 yards; and at D the angles CDA and ADB were taken; the first = 14°, the latter = 41° 30′. Required the above specified distances. D Here, the sum of the angles c and CDA taken from 180°, leaves the angle CAD, and the sum of the angles.c and CDB taken from 180°, leaves the angle CBD. Then, it will be as sin CBD:CD::Sin C: DB. As sin CAD:CD :: sin C: DA. And sin ABD: AD :: sin ADB: AB. These operations will give DB = 498.68, DA = 487·27, AB = 349:52 yards. EXAMPLE X. Wanting to know the horizontal distance between two inaccessible objects A and B, and not finding any station from which I could see them both, I chose two points c and D dis- ing set up flag-staves at F and E, took the following angles, viz. AFC = 83°, ACF = 54°31′ ACD = 53° 30', BDC = 156° 25′, BDE = 54° 30′, BED = 88° 30′. Required AB. Here, in the triangle AFC, all the angles are gi and the side Fc, to find AC. Then, in the triangle are given AC, CD, and the contained a other angles and the side AD. |