APOTHECARIES' WEIGH T. 20 grains make 1 scruple, marked gr. fc. or 9. Apothecaries use this weight in compounding their medicines; but they buy and sell their drugs by Avoirdupois weight. Apothecaries' is the same as Troy weight, having only some different divisons. AVOIR DUPOIS WEIGHT. 16 drams make 1 ounce, marked dr. oz. By this weight are weighed all things of a coarse or drossy nature: such as butter, cheese, flesh, grocery wares, and all metals, except gold and silver.* DRY MEASURE. Marked 2 pints make 1 quart pts. qts. 8 bushels Marked I quarter qr. NOTE.-The diameter of a Winchester bushel is 18 inches, and its depth 8 inches. By this measure, falt, lead, ore, oysters, corn, and other dry goods are measured. NOTE. The ale gallon contains 282 cubic inches. In London the ale firkin contains 8 gallons, and the beer fir kin 9; other measures being in the same proportion. WINE 2 stones 6++ tods 2 weys 12 sacks I last. ... A barrel of pork is. A quintal of fish 20 things make ... 144 dozen I greater gross. Further, 5760 grains = 1 lb. lb. Troy; 7000 grains = 1 lb. A. 220 voirdupois; therefore the weight 220 of the pound Troy is to that of ... 112 the pound Avoirdupois, as 5760 to 7000, or as 144 to 175. I score MEASURE. WINE Marked Marked 2 pints make 1 quart pts. qts. 2 hogsheads 1 pipe or 63 gallons 1 hogshead hhd. 18 gallons I rundlet 84 gallons puncheon pun. 31 gallons rund. I barrel bar. By this measure, brandies, spirits, perry, cider, mead, vinegar, and oil are measured. - NOTE. 231 solid inches make a gallon, and 10 gallons make an anchor. NOTE 1. The second may be supposed to be divided into 60 thirds, and these again into 60 fourths, &c. NOTE 2. April, June, September, and November, have each 30 days; each of the other months has 31, except February, which has 28 in common years, and 29 in leap years. Reduction is the method of bringing numbers from one name or denomination to another, so as still to retain the same value. RULE.* I. When the reduction is from a greater name to a less. Multiply the highest name or denomination by as many as make one of the next less, adding to the product the parts of the second name; then multiply this sum by as many as make one of the next less name, adding to the product the parts of the third name; and so on, through all the denominations to the last. II. When *The reason of this rule is exceedingly obvious; for pounds are brought into shillings by multiplying them by 20; shillings into pence by multiplying them by 12; and pence into farthings by multiplying them by 4; and the contrary by division and this will be true in the reduction of numbers consisting of any denomination whatever. II. When the reduction is from a less name to a greater. Divide the given number by as many as make one of the next superior denomination; and this quotient again by as many as make one of the next following; and so on, through all the denominations to the highest; and this last quotient, together with the several remainders, will be the answer required. The method of proof is by reversing the question. EXAMPLES. 1. În 14651. 149. 5d. how many farthings? 20 29314 12 4)1407092 12)351773 2,0)2931,45 6. In 2311. 16s. how many ducats at 4s. 9d. each? Ans. 976. 7. In 274 marks, each 13s. 4d. and 87 nobles, each 6s. d. how many pounds? Ans. 2111. 13s. 4d. 8. In 1776 quarter guineas how many six-pences sterling? Ans. 18548. 9. Reduce 1776 six and thirties to half-crowns sterling. Ans. 25574 10. In 30807 moidores how many pieces of coin, each {s. 6d. ? F Ans- 304842. 11. In |