1 WINE MEASURE. Marked Marked 2 pints make i quart pts. qts. 2 hogsheads I pipe or butt tier. 2. pipes 63 gallons I hogshead hhd. 18 gallons I rundlet rund. I barrel bar. 84 gallons 1 puncheon pun. 31 gallons By this measure, brandies, spirits, perry, cider, mead, vinegar, and oil are measured. NOTE.-231 solid inches make a gallon, and to gallons make an anchor. CLOTH MEASURE. 3 feet I yard 6 feet 5 yards 40 poles 8 furlongs 3 miles I pole 3 barley corns make I 60 geographical miles, or bar.c. in. 69 statute miles i de 1 ft. yd. gree deg. or 360 degrees the circum 1 fathom fath. ference of the earth. pol. Note---4 inches make I hand. Marked NOTE. NOTE 1. The second may be supposed to be divided into 60 thirds, and these again into 60 fourths, &c. NOTE 2. April, June, September, and November, have each 30 days; each of the other months has 31, except February, which has 28 in common years, and 29 in leap years. CIRCULAR ΜΟΤΙΟΝ. Reduction is the method of bringing numbers from one name or denomination to another, so as still to retain the same value. RULE.* I. When the reduction is from a greater name to a less. Multiply the highest name or denomination by as many as make one of the next less, adding to the product the parts of the second name; then multiply this sum by as many as make one of the next less name, adding to the product the parts of the third name; and so on, through all the denominations to the last. II. When * The reason of this rule is exceedingly obvious; for pounds are brought into shillings by multiplying them by 20; shillings into pence by multiplying them by 12; and pence into farthings by multiplying them by 4; and the contrary by division: and this will be true in the reduction of numbers consisting of any denomination whatever. 1 II. When the reduction is from a less name to a greater. Divide the given number by as many as make one of the next superior denomination; and this quotient again by as many as make one of the next following; and so on, through all the denominations to the highest; and this last quotient, together with the several remainders, will be the answer required. The method of proof is by reversing the question. EXAMPLES. 1. In 14651. 145. 5d. how many farthings? Ans. 35280. Ans. 81 and 18s. 4. In 35 guineas how many farthings sterling? 5. In 420 quarter guineas how many moidores ? 6. In 2311. 16s. how many ducats at 4s. 9d. each ? Ans. 976. 7. In 274 marks, each 13s. 4d. and 87 nobles, each 6s. Ans. 2111. 135. 4d. d. how many pounds? 8. In 1776 quarter guineas how many six-pences sterling? Ans. 18648. 9. Reduce 1776 six and thirties to half-crowns sterling. Ans. 25574 10. In 50807 moidores how many pieces of coin, each 4s. 6d. ? Ans. 304842. |