merator of the divisor by the denominator of the dividend for a new denominator. A Or, invert the terms of the divisor, and then multiply by it, exactly as in multiplication, 2 2 5x+a_5x+6ax+a* the quotient required. 2x-26 +6 20-263 x+a x+a_2x2 Xx+a 5. Divide 4 2x 7 x+1 I by 5x. 6. Divide by 6 2x 1 2 INVOLUTION is the continual multiplication of a quanti ty into itself, and the products thence arising are called the powers of that quantity, and the quantity itself is called the root. Or it is the method of finding the square, cube, biquadrate, &c. of any given quantity. Multiply the quantity into itself, till the quantity be taken for a factor as many times as there are units in the index, and the last product will be the power required. Or, Multiply the index of the quantity by the index of the power, and the result will be the power required. * Any power of the product of two or more quantities is equal to the same powers of the factors, multiplied together. And any power of a fraction is equal to the same power of the numerator, divided by the same power of the denominator, 23 a2+x*13, namely, the ath power of the cube root of NOTE. All the odd powers raised from a negative root are negative, and all the even powers are positive. Thus, the second power of -a is -ax-a=+a by the rule for the signs in multiplication. 2 The third power of -a is ta2 X-a-a3, The fourth power is -a3 X-a=+a. 4 5 The fifth power of -a is +a+ X-a=-as, &c. EXAMPLES FOR PRACTICE. 1. Required the cube of -8x*y. 23 Ans. -51axy 2ax 2. Required the biquadrate of 364 : SIR ISAAC NEWTON'S RULE For raising a binomial or residual quantity to any power whatever.* 1. To find the terms without the coefficients. The index of the first, or leading quantity, begins with that of the * This rule, expressed in general terms, is as follows : given 1-2 a+b=a"+n.a-btn. 3, &c. n-1 12-1 an-262+n an-3 15 given power, a 2. To find the unice or coefficients. The first is always i, and the second is the index of the power; and in general, if the coefficient of any term be multiplied by the index of the leading quantity, and the product be divided by the number of terms to that place, it will give the coefficient of the term next following. NOTE. The whole number of terms will be one more than the index of the given power; and, when both terms of the root are +, all the terms of the power will be +; but if the second term be-, then all the odd terms will be +, and the even terms EXAMPLES. 1. Let a+x be involved to the fifth power. The terms without the coefficients will be NOTE. The sum of the coefficients, in every power, is equal to the number 2, raised to that power. Thus, 1+1=2, for the first power; 1+2+1=4=2*, for the square; 1+3+3+1= 823, for the cube, or third power; and so on. |