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to him who is next heir of blood, and no ́t to an executor or administrator, as chattels do. It is a word of large extent, and much used in conveyances; for by the grant of hereditamente, isles, seignories, manors, houses, and lauds of all sorts, charters, rents, services, advowsons, commons, and whatever may be inherited, will pass. Heredi taments are of two kinds, corporeal and incorporeal. Corporeal hereditaments consist wholly of substantial and permanent objects, all which may be comprehended under the general denomination of land only; for land comprehends, in its legal signification, any ground, soil, or earth whatsoever, as arable, meadows, pastures, woods, moors, waters, marches, furzes, and heath. Incorporeal hereditaments are not the object of sensation, are creatures of the mind, and exist only in contemplation. They are principally of ten sorts, viz. advowsons, tithes, commons, ways, offices, dignities, franchises, presents, and rents.

HERIOT, in law, signifies a tribute given to the lord for his better preparation towards war. And by the laws of Canute, it appears, that at the death of the great men of this nation, so many horses and arms were to be paid for, as they were in their respective life-times obliged to keep for the King's service. A heriot was first paid in arms and horses; it is now by some custom sometimes the best live beast which the tenant dies possessed of, sometimes the best inanimate goods, under which a jewel or piece of plate may be included. Some are due by custom, some by tenure, and by reservation on deeds executed within time of memory; those due by custom are the most frequent.

For an heriot service, or for an heriot reserved by way of tenure, the lord may either seize or distrain.

HERISSON, in fortification, a beam armed with a great number of iron spikes, with their points outwards, and supported by a pivot, on which it turns.

HERITIERA, in botany, so named in honour of Charles Louis L'Heritier, a genus of the Monoecia Monadelphia class and order. Essential character: calyx five-toothed; corolla none; male anthers ten, without filaments; female germs five; drupes with one subglobular seed. There is but one species, viz. H. littoralis, looking-glass plant, a native of the East Indies.

HERMANNIA, in botany. This name was given in honour of the celebrated Paul Hermann, a genus of the Monadelphia Pen

tandria class and order. Natural order of Columniferæ. Tiliaceæ, Jussieu. Essential character: styles five; capsule fivecelled; petals semitubular at the base, oblique. There are twenty-one species. The hermannias are shrubs from two to seven feet in height. Natives of the Cape of Good Hope.

HERMAPHRODITE, a term formerly applied exclusively to signify a human creature possessed of both sexes. The term is now applied to other animals, and to plants. It is now well known there is no such thing as an hermaphrodite in the human species. In most species of animals, the production of hermaphrodites appears to be the effect of chance, but in the black cattle it seems to be an established principle of their propagation. It is a well known fact, and, as far as has yet been discovered, appears to be universal, that when a cow brings forth two calves, one of them a bull, and the other a cow to appearance, the cow is unfit for propagation, but the ball-calf becomes a very proper bull. They are known not to breed; they do not shew the least inclination for the bull, nor does the bull ever take the least notice of them. Among the country people in England, this kind of calf is called a free-martin; and this singularity is just as well known among the farmers as either cow or bull. When they are preserved, it is for the purposes of an ox or spayed heifer; viz. to yoke with the oxen, or fatten for the table. They are much larger than either the bull or the cow, and the horns grow longer and bigger, being very similar to those of an ox. The bellow of a free-martin is also similar to that of an ox, and the meat is similar to that of the ox or spayed heifer, viz. much finer in the fibre than either the bull or cow, and they are more susceptible of growing fat with good food.

Among the reptile tribe, indeed, such as worms, snails, leeches, &c. hermaphrodites are very frequent. In the memoirs of the French Academy, we have an account of this very extraordinary kind of hermaphro dites, which not only have both sexes, but do the office of both at the same time. Such are earth-worms, round-tailed worms found in the intestines of men and horses, landsnails, and those of fresh waters, and all the sorts of leeches. And as all these are reptiles, and without bones, it is inferred that all other insects which have these two characters are also hermaphrodites. The method of coupling practised in this class

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HETEROGENEOUS nouns, one of the three variations in irregular nouns; or such as are of one gender in the singular number, and of another in the plural. Heterogeneous, under which are comprehended mixed nouns, are six-fold. 1. Those which are of the masculine gender in the singular number, and neuter in the plural. 2. Those hich are masculine in the singular numbut masculine and neuter in the plural.

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oblignely; a gland stamens; siliqua stiff; orked base, and converging closed. There are seven speese plants are much cultivated for Great fragrancy of the flowers: th dies in Germany have pots of it placed their apartments, whence it obtained the nanie of dames violet.

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ROGENEOUS numbers, mixed numconsisting of integers and fractions. HETEROGENEOUS quantities, are those which are of such different kinds, as that one of them taken any number of times, never equals or exceeds the other.

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HETEROCLITE, among grammarians, one of the three variations in irregular nouns, and defined by Mr. Ruddiman, a noun that varies in declension. Other grammarians take the word heteroclite in a larger sense, applying it to all irregular nouns. HETEROGENOUS, or HETEROGENEAL, something that consists of parts of dissimilar kinds, in opposition to homoge

neous.

HETEROGENEOUS surds, are such as have different radical signs, asa a,

9, 18, &c. See SURD.

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If the indices of the powers of the heterogeneous surds be divided by their greatest common divisor, and the quotients be set under the dividends; and those indices be multiplied crosswise by each others quotients; and before the products be set the common radical sign, with its proper index; and if the powers of the given roots be involved alternately, according to the index of each others quotient, and the common radical sign be prefixed before those products, then will those two surds be reduced to others, having but one common radical sign.

HETEROGENEOUS, in mechanics, such bodies whose density is unequal in different parts of their bulk; or they are such whose gravities in different parts are not proportionable to the bulks thereof; whereas bodies equally dense or solid in every part, or whose gravity is proportionable to their bulk, are said to be homogeneous.

HETEROGENEOUS light, is, by Sir Isaac Newton, said to be that which consists of rays of different degrees of refrangibility: thus the common light of the sun or clouds

HEUCHERA, in botany, a genus of the Pentandria Digynia class and order. Natural order of Succulenta. Saxifragæ, Jussieu. Essential character: petals five; capsule two-beaked, two-celled. There are two species, viz. H. americana, American heuchera or sanicle, and H. dichotoma.

relation denoting such inhabitants of the HETEROSCII, in geography, a term of earth as have their shadows falling but one way, as those who live between the tropics north latitude, are always to the northand polar circles, whose shadows at noon, in ward; and in south latitude, to the southward. Thus we who inhabit the northern temperate zone, are heteroscii with regard

of hermaphrodites, may be illustrated in the instance of earth-worms. These little creatures creep, two by two, out of holes proper to receive them, where they dispose their bodies in such a manner, as that the head of the one is turned to the tail of the other. Being thus stretched lengthwise, a little conical button, or papilla, is thrust forth by each, and received into an aperture of the other, these animals being male in one part of the body and female in another.

Among the insects of the soft or boneless kind, there are great numbers indeed which are so far from being hermaphrodites, that they are of no sex at all. Of this kind are all the caterpillars, maggots, and worms, produced of the eggs of flies of all kinds. But the reason of this is plain: these are not animals in a perfect state, but disguises under which animals lurk. They have no business with the propagating of their species, but are to be transformed into animals of another kind, by the putting off their several coverings; and then only they are in their perfect state, and, therefore, then only show the differences of sex, which are always in the distinct animals, each being only male or female. These copulate, and their eggs produce those creatures which show no sex till they arrive at that perfect state again.

HERMAPHRODITE flowers, in botany, are so called on account of their containing both the antheræ and stigma, the supposed organs of generation within the same calyx and petals. Of this kind are the flow ers of all the classes in Linnæus's method, except the classes Monoecia and Dioecia; in the former of which, male and female flowers are produced on the same root; in the latter, in distinct plants from the same seed. In the class Polygamia, there are always hermaphrodite flowers mixed with male or female, or both, either on the same or distinct roots. In the plaintain-tree the flowers are all hermaphrodite; in some, however, the antheræ or male organ, in others the stigma, or female organ, proves abortive. The flowers in the former class are styled female hermaphrodites; in the latter, male hermaphrodites. Hermaphrodites are thus as frequent in the vegetable kingdom as they are rare and scarce in the animal one.

HERMAS, in botany, a genus of the Polygamia Monoecia class and order. Natural order of Umbellatæ or Umbelliferæ. Essential character: hermaphrodite, umbel

terminating; involucre unfversal and partial; umbellets with truncate rays, the central one floriferous; petals five; stamina five, barren; seeds in pairs, suborbiculate: male, umbels lateral, with universal and partial involucres; umbellets many-flowered; petals five; stamina five, fertile. There are five species.

HERMETICAL seal, among chemists, a method of stopping glass vessels, used in chemical operations, so closely, that the most subtle spirit cannot escape through them. It is commonly done by heating the neck of the vessel in a flame, till ready to melt, and then twisting it closely together with a pair of pincers. Or vessels may be hermetically sealed by stopping them with a glass plug, well luted.

HERNANDIA, in botany, from Francis Hernandez, a genus of the Monoecia Triandria class and order. Natural order of Tricoccæ. Lauri, Jussieu. Essential character: male, calyx three-parted; corolla three-petalled: female, calyx truncate, quite entire; corolla six-petalled; drupe hollow, with an open mouth, and a moveable nucleus. There are two species, viz. H. șonora, whistling hernandia; and H. ovigera, egg-fruited hernandia. The first mentioned is an upright lofty tree, with a beautiful head; the flowers are of a pale yellow colour, in panicled racemes; the calyxes of the fruit are also yellow. It is very common in the West Indies, in gullies, near rills of water; the English there call it jack in a box. Dr. Patrick Browne attributes the whistling noise to the cups that sustain and partly envelope the nuts; these he adds are very large, and as they move in the wind, produce sound enough to alarm unwary travellers. The seeds are very oily.

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HERNIARIA, in botany, English rupture-wort, a genus of the Pentandria Digynia class and order. Natural order of Holoraceæ. Amaranthi, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx five-parted; corolla none stamina five, barren, besides the fertile ones; capsule one-seeded. There are four species; as none of these plants possess any beauty, they are rarely cultivated in gardens.

HERON, in ornithology, a bird of the ardea kind, with a hanging crest. See ARDEA.

HERRING. See CLUPEA.

HESPERIDÆ, the name of the nineteenth order in Linnæus's fragments of a natural method, consisting of five genera, among which are the caryophyllus or clove

trce; and the myrtus, myrtle; allspice or pimento. The plants of this order are of the shrub and tree-kind, and chiefly evergreen. The bark of the stalks is slender; the leaves are generally opposite, but in the myrtle, the leaves are placed opposite at the bottom of the stalks, and alternate above. The buds are generally conical, concealed in the cavity, which is formed by the footstalk of each leaf at its origin. The flowers are commonly hermaphrodite : in a species of the myrtus, however, they are male and female upon different roots. The calyx is placed above the seed-bud: the petals are three, four or five in number; the stamina are upwards of twenty, nearly equal, and attached in several rows to the middle of the tube of the calyx. The seed-bud is large, and placed below the receptacle of the flower; the style is single, of the length of the stamina, and terminated with a single stigma. The seed vessel is sometimes a berry, sometimes a capsule, and sometimes

a stone.

HESPERIS, in botany, English rocket, or dames violet, a genus of the Tetradynamia Siloquosa class and order. Natural order of Siliquosæ. Cruciformes, Tournefort. Cruciferæ, Jussieu. Essential character: petals bent obliquely; a gland within the shorter stamens; siliqua stiff; stigma with a forked base, and converging tip; calyx closed. There are seven species. These plants are much cultivated for the great fragrancy of the flowers: th ladies in Germany have pots of it placed their apartments, whence it obtained the nanie of dames violet.

HETEROCLITE, among grammarians, one of the three variations in irregular nouns, and defined by Mr. Ruddiman, a noun that varies in declension. Other grammarians take the word heteroclite in a larger sense, applying it to all irregular nouns.

HETEROGENOUS, or HEterogeNEAL, something that consists of parts of dissimilar kinds, in opposition to homoge

neous.

HETEROGENEOUS, in mechanics, such bodies whose density is unequal in different parts of their bulk; or they are such whose gravities in different parts are not proportionable to the bulks thereof; whereas bodies equally dense or solid in every part, or whose gravity is proportionable to their bulk, are said to be homogeneous.

HETEROGENEOUS light, is, by Sir Isaac Newton, said to be that which consists of rays of different degrees of refrangibility: thus the common light of the sun or clouds

i

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is heterogeneous; being a mixture of all sorts of rays.

HETEROGENEOUS nouns, one of the three variations in irregular nouns; or such as are of one gender in the singular number, and of another in the plural. Heterogeneous, under which are comprehended mixed nouns, are six-fold. 1. Those which are of the masculine gender in the singular number, and neuter in the plural. 2. Those which are masculine in the singular number, but masculine and neuter in the plural. 3. Such as are feminine in the singular number, but neuter in the plural. 4. Such nouns as are neuter in the singular number, but masculine in the plural. 5. Such as are nenter in the singular, but neuter and masculine in the plural. 6. Such as are neuter in the singular, but feminine in the plural number.

HETEROGENEOUS numbers, mixed numbers consisting of integers and fractions.

HETEROGENEOUS quantities, are those which are of such different kinds, as that one of them taken any number of times, never equals or exceeds the other.

HETEROGENEOUS surds, are such as have different radical signs, asa a,

9, 18, &c. See SURD.

bb,

If the indices of the powers of the heterogeneous surds be divided by their greatest common divisor, and the quotients be set under the dividends; and those indices be multiplied crosswise by each others quotients; and before the products be set the common radical sign, with its proper index; and if the powers of the given roots be involved alternately, according to the index of each others quotient, and the common radical sign be prefixed before those products, then will those two surds be reduced to others, having but one common radical sign.

HEUCHERA, in botany, a genus of the Pentandria Digynia class and order. Natural order of Succulentæ. Saxifragæ, Jussieu. Essential character: petals five capsule two-beaked, two-celled. There are two species, viz. H. americana, American heuchera or sanicle, and H. dichotoma.

HETEROSCII, in geography, a term of relation denoting such inhabitants of the earth as have their shadows falling but one way, as those who live between the tropics and polar circles, whose shadows at noon, in north latitude, are always to the northward; and in south latitude, to the southward. Thus we who inhabit the northern temperate zone, are heteroscii with regard

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