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ter wielded the lightning in his right hand; Neptune bore the three pronged trident;

Earl Marshal's hand; which done, the King signs the same, and so it passes the privy seal and broad seal; and that once obtain-Mars the spear; Saturn the scythe; and Baced, they are to be sworn and created by the Earl Marshal, or his deputy.

Of the Kings of Arms. 1. Garter principal King of Arms of Englishmen, and chief officer of arms of the most noble order of the Garter. 2. Clarencieux King of Arms. 3. Norroy King of Arms.

Garter. This officer was constituted by King Henry V. with the advice and consent of the Knights of the Garter, for the service of the said most noble society, and from thence took his name; and his Majesty, for the greater dignity of the order, being pleased to annex thereto the office of principal King of Arms, from hence he is honoured with two distinct titles, Garter, and principal King of Arms.

The duty of his office, in relation to the Garter, is in general, to perform whatever the Sovereign, prelate, or chancellor of the said order, shall enjoin him relating thereto; such as carrying the rod and sceptre at every feast of St. George, when the Sovereign is present, to notify the election of such Knights as are newly elected, to call upon them to be installed at Windsor, to attend the solemnity at their installation, to cause their arms to be put over their seats in the chapel there, to marshal the funeral rights and ceremonies of those knights, to carry the Garter to foreign kings and princes, that are chosen to be knights of that most noble order, to take cognizance of the arms of the nobility, and to make supporters to those created to any new degree of peerage; for which he has allow ed him a salary and fees, both from the Sovereign and the knights.

This officer, as principal Herald or King of Arms in England (as Lion is in Scotland, and Ulster in Ireland) marshals the solemn funerals of the higher nobility of England, as Princes, Dukes, Marquisses, Earls, Viscounts, and Barons, as also does many other services to the King and State; and therefore, as the other Kings have, has a salary out of the Exchequer, and double their fees at the instalments of the Knights of the Garter, and a composition for the uppermost garment of each knight at his installation.

It may not be improper to notice the peculiar bearings or attributes of the great est antiquity before we proceed to treat of more modern facts. The Heathen divinities had each their distinctive mark; Jupi

chus the spear, encircled by ivy; the Phrygians, the sow; the Goths, a bear; the Thracians, Mars; the ancient French, the lion, which was afterwards changed to the toad, and that again for the fleur de lis, sent them from Heaven by an angel, whose commission was directed to Clovis, their first Christian monarch; the Saxons, a horse; the Flemings, a bull; the King of Antioch, an eagle grasping a dragon; the Romans, the eagle; Pompey, a lion holding a sword; yet the Roman people, who were saved by the cackling of geese, despised that bird in too great a degree to admit it into their ensigns: exclusive of the above, there were many nations and individuals who distinguished themselves by exhi biting every description of weapons on their banners. It should also be observed, that the most ferocious beasts and birds were selected as emblematic of honour and courage, for this reason, shields,' with their figures only, are considered as most honourable and ancient; but those with trees, flowers, plants, the sun, moon, planets, varieties of colours, or charged with any of the honourable ordinaries, or artificial objects, are deemed of less importance.

The science of heraldry consists principally of blazoning and marshalling; the former is the art of displaying a coat of arms in its proper colours, the latter is the combining various arms in one shield. In blazoning it is usual to begin with the field, and then proceed with the charge, and in naming the objects charged in the field, to mention the most predominant, and next the field, first ; and then the most remote. Gwillim ob. serves, that tincture is a variable hue of arms, and as applicable to differences as to the arms, and is distributed into colours and furs. The same author considers colours an external dye, or the gloss of any illuminated object, and the colour alluded to is considered general and special. The general implies the natural colour of bodies, whether artificial or otherwise; those borne in their natural colours must be blazoned proper, without mentioning the colours.

There are forms in heraldry which have names only applied to them, and no colour specified in the blazoning, the term sufficiently explaining the colour of each; they resemble a globe or ball, and are called besants the colour or plates ar gent; hurts, azure; torteauxes, gules; pel.

lets or ogresses, sable; pomeis, vert; golpes, purpure; oranges, tenue, and grosses, sanguine. In these nine varieties are inIcluded all the colours generally used in blazonry.

The blazoning of the arms of gentlemen, esquires, knights, and baronets, is derived from metals and colours; those of barons, viscounts, earls, marquisses, and dukes, from precious stones; and those of princes, kings, and emperors from the planets. See Co

LOURS.

Or, gold, is expressed by dots (see Plate of I. Heraldry, fig. 1) and is intended as an intimation that as gold surpasses all other metals in value and purity, he that bears it should endeavour to excel in the same proportion, the same insinuation is implied in the topaz and the sun.

Argent, or white, is represented by a perfect blank (see fig. 2), this colour ranks next to Or, and without gold and silver Heraldry would be imperfect, argent signifies innocence, temperance and hope, the pearl was supposed by the antients to possess a restorative property, and Luna is acknowledged to be the mistress of honour, the seas and tides.

Gules, red, is expressed by perpendicular lines, or lines paleways from the chief to the base (see fig. 3), this colour has ever been considered as symbolical of majesty and dignity; the ruby cannot be wasted by fire or water, and Mars, the planet, alludes to the heathen God of battle, the patron of courage and military address.

Azure, blue, the lines in this instance are horizontal (see fig. 4) and intended for the tint of the air or sky, and is said to denote loyalty, fidelity, and chastity; the precious stone and planet in azure were adopted as possessed of superior qualities, emblematic of the worth of nobles and princes.

Sable, or black, represented by perpendicular and horizontal lines crossing each other at right angles (see fig. 5). Sable indicates gravity, constancy, and grief for the loss of friends; the diamond is the most valuable of all stones, and Saturn presides over counsellors and other grave charac

ters.

Vert, green, the lines are bendways (see fig. 6) or from the sinister corner of the chief to the opposite of the base, and is emblematical of youth, peace, and concord. Purpure, is a colour composed of a large part of crimson, and a less of blue, and the lines which express it tend directly con

trary to those of vert, (see fig. 7) this word is derived from the fish called purpura; the amethyst was preferred for its excellence to decorate the breast of Aaron, and the planet Mercury signifies goodness of temper.,

Tenne, or tawny, is a mixture of red and yellow, and represented by lines like those of purpure, it has been but little used in England, but was formerly in a considerable degree in France.

Sanguine, is composed of lake and a small quantity of Spanish brown, and expressed by lines as purpure, it was much used by the knights of the Bath, and by the serjeants at law in their vestments; the Sardonix is said by St. John to be the sixth stone in the Heavenly Jerusalem.

Furs are the next object to be consider. ed, the use of which may be thus explained. Ermine, implies a field argent, with the powdering sable, (see fig. 8.)

Ermines, is the reverse, or a field sable, and the powderings argent.

Erminois signifies a field or, and the pow dering sable.

Pean, is a field sable, and the powder. ings or.

Vair, is of two descriptions, if it con sists of argent and azure it is sufficient to say vair, but if it is compounded of any other colours, it is usual to say vairy of the colours adopted. (see fig. 9.)

Fig. 10 is blazoned potent-counter-po. tent, and the colours argent and azure.

Doublings, or furs, were antiently, and are at present used for the linings of the robes and mantles of senators, consuls and kings.

The bordure is extended to a great variety, as (fig. 11) gules a bordure, or, (fig. 12), ' a bordure indented, argent; (fig. 13) a bor. dure counter compone, argent and gules.

The bordure is generally one-sixth part of the breadth of the shield, and is ingrailed, indented, charged, componed and countered. If the inner line of the bordure is strait and the latter plain, the colour of the bordure alone is named in blazoning; if it is charged with parts of plants or flowers, it is described as verdoy of trefoils. If it consists of ermines, Vair or vairy, or any of the furs, the heralds say purflew of ermines. When charged with martlets, charged with an enaluron of martlets.

The label is the first of the distinctive marks of the branches of a family, and is borne by the eldest son during the life of his father (see fig. 14). The second son bears a crescent, the third a mullet,

the fourth a martlet, the fifth an annulet, the sixth a fleur de lis, the seventh a rose, the eighth a cross moline, and the ninth a double quatrefoil, (see figures 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22. )

Those differences should be strictly observed by every brother or house, to prevent contention relating to coat ar

mour.

In the second house, the first son bears a crescent charged with a label during his father's life only; the second son, of the same house, a crescent charged with another crescent; the third, a crescent charged with a mullet; the fourth, a crescent charg ed with a martlet; the fifth, a crescent charged with an annulet; and the sixth, a crescent charged with a fleur de lis.

The mullet, which is the difference of the third house, is thus charged: the first son, with a label during the life of his father; the second, with a crescent; the third, with a mullet; the fourth, with a martlet; the fifth, with an annulet; and the sixth, a fleur de lis.

The martlet, annulet, and fleur de lis, the differences of the fourth, fifth and sixth houses, are charged for distinctions similar to the mullet.

The daughters of families are permitted to bear their fathers arms, with the same distinctions used by them.

The shield, or escocheon, the mantle, the helmet and crest, are the several parts of arms which compose an achievement. Aecidents in the escocheon, are points and abatements; the former are places in the shield named according to their position in the middle, or remote, the middle are near the centre. The fess point is the centre of the escocheon. The honour point is in a direct line above it, and the nombril is next below it. Remote points are placed at still greater distances from the fess point, some of which are superior and others inferior; the former occupy the upper part of the escocheon, and of those there are middle and extremes, the middle is the exact middle of the chief between the two extremes; the two superior extreme points occupy the corners of the chief part of the escocheon, and are termed the dexter and sinister. The inferior points are at the base, and of them there are middle and remote, (see fig. 23) in which A is the dexter chief point; B, the precise middle chief; C, the sinister chief; D, the honour point; E, the fess point; F, the nombril point; G, the dexter base; H, the dexter middle

base; I, the sinister base point. An abatement is a casual mark annexed to coat armour, which announces some dishonourable act of the bearer. Abatements consist of diminution and reversing, the first is the blemishing of some particular point of the escocheon by sanguine and tenne, which are stains; were the metals used they would be considered additions of honour. See fig. 24.

Augmentations are additional charges borne on an escocheon, a canton, or chief, and given as particular marks of honour. See fig. 26.

Escocheons are either of one or more tinctures: of those of more than one, that is said to be predominant, when some one metal-colour or fur is supposed to be spread over the whole surface of the escocheon, which is termed the field, or shield: in such as have more than one tincture, the field and charge must be observed.

The charge is that which possesses the field, whether natural, artificial, vegetable, or sensitive, and may be placed throughout the superfices, or in some particular part of the escocheon.

Ordinaries consist of lines variously drawn. The properties of them depend upon their deviations from a right line. Those are termed engrailed, invected, waved, crenelle, or embattled, nebule, indented, and dancette. (See fig. 27.) Of these, and straight lines, honourable ordinaries, abatements, and rewards of honour are composed.

The honourable ordinaries are the cross, chief, fess, barr, pale, chevron, bend, saltier, and escocheon.

The cross occupies the fifth part of the escocheon; if charged, the third; and is borne engrailed, invected, wavey, &c. between a charge, and charged as the rest of the ordinaries are. (See fig. 28.) Argent a cross sable.

The chief is peculiar to those who have obtained it by extraordinary merit: it contains one third part of the escocheon in depth, and is divided into a fillet, which includes a fourth part of the chief, and is placed in the chief point. (See fig. 29.) Or, a chief gules,

The fess is situated in the centre of the shield, and contains in breadth the third part of the escocheon. (See fig. 30. Azure a fess, or.) The bar differs from the fess only, as it is but the fifth part of the shield. It is divided into the closet, or a moiety of the bar; and the barulet, or half the closet.

The pale contains the third part of the

eseocheon, and is divided into a pallet, or one half of the pale. An endorse is the fourth part of a pale, and is not used but when the pale is between two of them. If the pale is upon an animal, it is usual to say, he is debrused with the pale, if the beast is on the pale, he is supported of the pale. (See fig. 31.) Gules, a pale, or.

The chevron resembles the rafters of a house, and occupies the fifth part of the field, and is divided into the chevronel, which contains half the chevron; and a couple close, the fourth part of the chevron. Those are not borne but in pairs, unless there is a chevron between them. (See fig. 32.) Gules, a chevron argent.

The bend contains the fifth part of the field in breadth when not charged; when charged, the third; and is divided into the bendlet, which is limited to the sixth part of the shield; into a garter, the moiety of a bend; into a cost, the fourth part of a bend; and a riband, the half of a cost. (See fig. 33.) Or, a bend azure.

There is, besides, the bend sinister, which passes obliquely across the escocheon, from the sinister chief to the dexter base. This is divided into the scrape, half the bend; and the battune, the fourth part of the bend, the most common badge of illegitimacy. (See fig. 34.) Gules, a battune ar

gent.

The saltire contains the fifth part of the shield; if charged, the third. This object represents an ancient description of scaling ladder; and, similar to the other ordinaries, is borne engrailed, wavy, &c. &c. (See fig. 35.) Sable, a saltire embattled, counter embattled, argent.

An inescocheou consists of the fifth part of the field, and is to be placed in the fess point. Those who marry an heiress bear her arms on an escocheon of pretence. (See fig. 36.) Ermine, an inescocheon gules. The pile is an ordinary, in form like a wedge; is an ancient addition to armoury, and adopted from the pointed instrument used to secure foundations on marshy grounds. (See fig. 37.) Azure, a pile ermine. Partitions are such in which there is no tincture from metal, colour, or fur predominating in them, and are formed of various lines of partition, often causing counterchanging and transmutation. This kind of bearing may be engrailed, &c. (See fig. 38. Plate II.) Parted per pale, argent and gules. An example of counterchanges is given in fig. 39. Or, a cross per pale, gules and

sable.

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Another of ordinaries joined is shewn in fig. 40. Gules on a chevron argent, three bars, gemells sable.

The artificial objects used in heraldry are very numerous, and far too much so for enumeration: they express ensigns of dignity, both spiritual and temporal, the liberal and mechanical professions, and military and naval aets. See fig. 41.

Military figures are equally usual, and consist of castles, battering rams, daggers, spears, &c. &c.

Common charges are composed of objects' natural or artificial; celestial are borne single, upon or between any of the honourable ordinaries, and then three are the usual number. (See fig. 42.) Diamond, a fess ermine, between three crescents to

paz.

Under the article of vegetables are included trees, plants, leaves, flowers, and fruits. An illustration is given in fig. 43. Vert, five fig-leaves in saltier.

Various parts of the human body and the blood are borne in heraldry. (See fig. 44.) Argent, goutte de sang. Those are, however, seldom borne alone, but upon or with some of the ordinaries. Goutte de sang only, always signifies gules; goutte de larmes, drops of tears, azure; goutte de ean, drops of water, argent; de poix, or sable, drops of pitch and d'or. The form of each is the same. The bloody hand is the appropriate mark of a baronet.

Of the various animals used, the lion is the most honourable; and all quadrupeds are considered more so than the bearings of fishes or fowls, particularly the males. The lion is borne rampant, (see fig. 45.) argent, a lion rampant sable; and passant, (see fig. 46) or, a lion passant sable, in chief three piles of the second. Parts of the lion are also generally adopted (see fig. 47.) Argent, a lion's head erazed vert. The varieties of beasts and their parts are extremely common, and cannot possibly be specified in an article so brief as the present, (see fig. 48.) Gules, a talbot passant, or, a chief ermine. All animals which are quadrupeds, and oviparous, may be borne. (See fig. 49.) Azure a tortoise erect, or. Fowls of every description are to be repre sented in the natural acts of standing or flying: those that are either whole footed, or have their feet divided, and have no talons, should be termed membered; the cock, and all birds of prey, must be called armed, and the arming or membering of them is to be of a different colour from the fowl or

bird in the blazoning of fowls which make much use of their wings, if they are not exhibited spread, they must be termed close. The parts and members are generally borne both couped and erazed, and that on or between any of the honourable ordinaries. Birds are considered a more noble bearing than fish. (See fig. 50.) Ermine, an eagle displayed gules.

Fishes are borne in many positions, directly upright, embowed, extended, and indorsed, and surmounting each other, fretted and triangle. (See fig. 51.) Azure, three trouts fretted in triangle argent. Those upright, with fins, were anciently termed in blazoning hauriant, signifying the act of respiration, to accomplish which fish frequently rise to the surface for fresh air; when borne transverse, or swimming, they were called in blazoning naiant. Fishes are borne in part, and on or between any of the honourable ordinaries.

There are, besides, animals or monsters, (see fig. 52.) Argent, a dragon's head erazed vert, holding in his mouth a sinister hand, couped at the wrist, gules.

Such are the peculiarities which dis tinguish the shield within the boundaries of its surface, we shall now proceed to treat of the helmet, and shew how it is placed in various cases, on the shield, above the coronet, and in others without the latter symbol of rank which equally marks the gradation of title with the helmet. The crown or coronet is more ancient than the helmet, and was invented as a testimony of triumph and victory; the radiated crown was assigned to Emperors; but the coronet with pearls on the circle, and foliage intervening, was not used in heraldry more than 500 years past. (See fig. 53–56) the coronet of a Duke, Marquis, Earl, Viscount, and Baron; besides ducal, mural, naval, civic, celestial, custom, valary, &c.

The helmet was worn in battle and at tournaments, both for use and distinction. Since the invention of fire arms it has been nearly confined to heraldic purposes. The manner of placing them on shields is shewn with in figs. 57, 58, 59. Those right in front, many bars, to Sovereigns; those nearly in profile to Peers; when front and open, to Baronets and Knights; in profile close, to Esquires and Gentlemen.

The wreath is a roll of silk, of two colours blazoned on the shield, and laid on the helmet as a support to the crest. See fig. 60.

The crest is the most elevated part of the

The

armour of the head, and is said to be de rived from crista, or cocks-comb. original use appears to have been a protection from the edge of the sword, when aimed at the upper part of the skull, Gwillim asserts, that the crest, or cognizance, should possess the highest place next to the mantle, yet so as to permit the interposition of a scroll, wreath, chapeau, or crown. The knights who celebrated justs wore plumes, of the heron and ostrich feathers, with crests of various materials, which were altered at pleasure. They are of great antiquity, and were of superior honour, as no person was admitted to tilt at a just till he had given proof of his noble descent, and they were limited to those only, (See fig. 61) which exhibits a crest on the wreath.

The mantle is the drapery that is thrown around a coat of arms: it is doubled, or lined throughout by one of the furs.

Supporters are figures by the side of a shield, appearing as if they actually held it erect. (fig. 62.) In England supporters are confined to Peers, and Knights of the four orders and proxies of the Princes of the Blood Royal, at installations, except by an especial grant from the Sovereign.

HERALDS. The heralds, which are six in number, are distinguished by the names of Richmond, Lancaster, Chester, Windsor, Somerset, and York, and are all equal in degree, only preceding according to the seniority of their creation, their patents being under the great seal of England.

HERB, in botany, is that part of the plant which rises from the root, and is terminated by the fructification. It comprehends the trunk and stem; the leaves; the fulcra, or supports; and the buds, or, as they are sometimes denominated, the winter quarters of the future vegetable.

HERBACEOUS plants, in botany, are those which have succulent stems that die down to the ground every year; those are annual that perish stem and root every year; bieunial, which subsist by the roots two years; perennial, which are perpetuated by their roots for a series of years, a new stem being produced every spring.

HERCULES, in astronomy, a constellation of the northern hemisphere. See ASTRONOMY.

HEREDITAMENTS, all such things immoveable, whether corporeal or incorporeal, as a man may leave to him and his heirs, by way of inheritance; or which not being otherwise devised, naturally descend

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