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HEADBORROW, or HEADBOROUGH, the chief of the frank pledge, and he that had the principal government of them within his own pledge. He was called also burrowhead, bursholder, third-burrow, tithing-man, chief-pledge, or borrow-elder. He is now occasionally called a constable.
HEALTH, is a right disposition of the body, and of all its parts; consisting in a due temperature, a right conformation, just connection, and ready and free exercise of the several vital functions.
HEARING. See SOUND.
The organ of hearing is the ear, and particularly the auditory nerve and membrane. See ANATOMY and PHYSIOLOGY.
HEAT. The laws according to which the temperature of bodies is subject to increase or diminution, have been discussed in the articles CALORIC, CAPACITY, COLD, COMBUSTION, and CHEMISTRY. In the first of these articles, caloric was considered as a substance capable of passing from body to body, and subsisting in them in different states. This is the general doctrine of chemical philosophers: many of these, however, as well as others, incline to the hypothesis, that heat may consist in an undulatory or other intestine motion, either in the parts of bodies, or in some subtle fluid, or ETHER, which see. Among these, we may reckon Sir Isaac Newton, Mr. Cavendish, Dr. Young, and Count Rumford.
“If heat,” says Dr. Young, “when attached to any substance, be supposed to consist in minute vibrations, and, when propagated from one body to another, to depend on the undulations of a medium highly elastic, its effects must strongly resemble those of sound, since every sounding body is in a state of vibration; and the air, or any other medium, which transmits sound, conveys its undulation to distant parts, by means of its elasticity: and we shall find, that the principal phenomena of heat may actually be illustrated by a comparison with those of sound. The excitation of heat and sound are not only similar, but often identical; as in the operations of friction and percussion: they are both communicated sometimes by contact, and sometimes by radiation; for, besides the common radiation of sound through the air, its effects are communicated by contact, when the end of a tuningfork is placed on a table, or on the sounding-board of an instrument, which receives from the fork an impression that is afterwards propagated as a distinct sound. And the effect of radiant heat, in raising the
temperature of a body, upon which it falls,
HEAT, animal. The temperature which animals, and even vegetables maintain during life, above that of surrounding ob jects, is a very striking phenomenon. By general analogies it has frequently been re. ferred to the process of combustion; and from facts more distinctly pointed, the doc trine, that it depends upon the absorption of oxygen, has been advanced by modern chemists. But it is to Dr. Crawford we are indebted for a direct series of experiments, by which the nature of the process is directly made out. It would carry us too far into physiological disquisition, if we were to proceed to enquire respecting the nature of the parts, and the functions of organized beings. The blood which circulates through the lungs absorbs oxygen in the act of respira tion, by means of which a portion of the carbon which it contains is acidified and carried off in the elastic state. After this, and perhaps other changes, the fluid passes through the arteries to the extreme vessels, depositing in some manner the elementary parts or principles of animal matter during the act of nutrition, in which state of still
further change the blood returns by the
Though the lungs appear to be the great organ of oxygenation in the larger animals, it is well ascertained that a process of nearly the same nature is carried on at the skin; and in many of the smaller or less perfect animals there appears to be no other means for effecting this absorption.
HEATH. See ERICA.
HEAVINESS, in general, the same with weight or gravity. See GRAVITY and WEIGHT.
HEBENSTREITIA, in botany, a genus of the Didynamia Angiospermia class and order. Essential character: calyx emarginate, cleft underneath; corolla one-lipped, lip ascending, four-cleft; stamens inserted into the edge of the border of the corolla; capsule containing two seeds. There are six species, all natives of the Cape.
HECTIC. See MEDICINE.
nus of the Pentandria Monogynia class and
HEDERACEÆ, in botany, the name of
HEDGES, in agriculture, are either planted to make fences round inclosures, or to divide the several parts of a garden. When they are designed as outward fences, they are planted either with hawthorn, crabs, or blackthorn; but those hedges which are planted in gardens, either to surround wilderness-quarters, or to screen the other parts of a garden from sight, are
planted according to the fancy of the owner, some preferring ever-greens, in which case the holly is best; next the yew, then the laurel, laurustinus, phillyrea, &c. others prefer the beach, the hornbeam, and the elm.
HEDGE hog. See ERINACEUS.
HEDGE sparrow, the brown motacilla, white underneath, and with a grey spot behind the eyes. See MOTACILLA.
HEDWIGIA, in botany, so called from J. Hedwig, a genus of the Octandria Monogynia class and order. Essential character: calyx four-toothed; corolla four-cleft; style none; capsule tricoccous; seed a nut. There is only one species; viz. H. balsamifera, a lofty tree more than sixty feet in height, and nearly five feet in circumference, a native of St. Domingo. The wood is used for many purposes: the red gum that issues from the bark has a strong aromatic smell, and is serviceable in the cure of wounds; it is frequently called bois cochon.
HEDYCARYA, in botany, a genns of the Dioecia Icosandria class and order. Natural order of Scabrida. Urtica, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx eight or ten cleft; corolla none: male, filaments none; anthers in the bottom of the calyx, four-furrowed, bearded at the tip: female, germs pedicelled; nuts pedicelled, oneseeded. There is but one species; viz. H. dentata, a native of New Zealand.
HEDYCREA, in botany, a genus of the Pentandria Monogynia class and order. Essential character: calyx one-leafed, he mispherical, five-toothed; corolla none; drupe oval, one-celled; nut ovate, covered with fibres, one-celled; the shell hard. There is but one species; riz. H. incana, a native of Guiana, where it is called caligni by the natives, who are remarkably fond of the fruit, which is about the size of a large olive: the pulp is white, and of a sweetish taste; the shell is bony, and separates with difficulty from the fibres in the pulp; the kernel is two-lobed: it is but a small tree, not exceeding four feet in height.
HEDYOSMUM, in botany, a genus of the Monoecia Polyandria class and order. Essential character: male, ament covered with anthers; no perianth, corolla, or filaments: female, calyx three-toothed; corolla none; style one, three-cornered; berry three-cornered, one-seeded. There are two species, both natives of Jamaica.
HEDYOTIS, in botany, a genus of the Tetrandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Stellatæ. Rubiacea, Jus
sieu. Essential character: corolla monopetalous, funnel-shaped; capsule two-celled, many-seeded, inferior. There are eight species, natives of the East and West Indies, also of Cochin-china.
HEDYPNOIS, in botany, a genus of the Syngenesia Polygamia Equalis class and order. Natural order of Compositæ Semiflosculosa. Cichoraceæ, Jussien. Essential character: calyx calycled, with short scales; seeds crowned with the calycle; outer without down, covered up in the scales of the calyx; inner having a down of five erectish awned chaffs: receptacle naked, hollow dotted. This genus, according to Professor Martyn, embraces some species of HYOSERIS and of CREPIS, which see.
HEDYSARUM, in botany, a genus of the Diadelphia Decandria class and order. Natural order of Papilionacea or Leguminosæ. Essential character: corolla keel transversely obtuse; legume jointed, with one seed in each joint. There are ninety species, only one of which is a native of Great Britain; viz. H. onobrychis, saintfoin, or cockshead, and but ten which are natives of Europe. Most of these are perennial. Linnæus relates a remarkable phenomenon belonging to H. gyrans, sensitive hedysarum, which is as follows: "This is a wonderful plant, on account of its voluntary motion, which is not occasioned by any touch, irritation, or movement in the air, as in the Mimosa, Oxalis, and Dionæa; nor is it so evanescent as in Amorphia. No sooner had the plants raised from seed acquired their ternate leaves, than they began to be in motion this way and that: this movement did not cease during the whole course of their vegetation, nor were they observant of any time, order, or direction; one leaflet frequently revolved, whilst the other on the same petiole was quiescent; sometimes a few leaflets only were in motion, then almost all of them would be in movement at once; the whole plant was very seldom agitated, and that only during the first year. It continued to move in the stove during the second year of its growth, and was not at rest even in winter."
HEEL, in the sea language. If a ship leans on one side, whether she be aground or afloat, then it is said she heels a starboard, or a-port; or that she heels offwards, or to the shore; that is, inclines more to one side than to another.
HEEL of the mast, that part of the foot of any mast which is pared away slanting on the aftward side thereof, in order that it
may be stayed aftward on. the top-masts are squares.
The heels of HEGIRA, in chronology, a celebrated epocha among Mahometans. See CHRONOLOGY. The event which gave rise to this epocha was the flight of Mahomet from Mecca, with his new proselytes, to avoid the persécution of the Coraischites; who, being then most powerful in the city, could not bear that Mahomet should abolish idolatry, and establish his new religion. This flight happened in the fourteenth year after Mahomet had commenced prophet: he retired to Medina, which he made the place of his residence.
HEIGHT, in geometry, is a perpendicular let fall from the vertex, or top, of any right-lined figure, upon the base or side subtending it. It is likewise the perpendicular height of any object above the horizon; and is found several ways, by two staffs, a plain mirror, with the quadrant, theodolite, or some graduated instrument, &c. The measuring of heights or distances is of two kinds: when the place or object is accessible, as when you can approach to its bottom; or inaccessible, when it cannot be approached. See SURVEYING.
HEIR, in law, is he to whom lands, tenements, hereditaments, by the act of God and right of blood, descend of some estate of inheritance.
HEIR apparent. No person can be heir in fact until the death of his ancestor; yet he who stands nearest in degree of kindred to the ancestor, is called even in his lifetime, heir apparent.
And the law takes notice of an heir apparent, so far as to allow the father to bring an action of trespass for taking away his son and heir, the father being guardian by nature to his son, where any lands descended to him.
The heir, heir general, or heir at common law, is he who after his father's or ancestor's death has a right to all bis land, tenements, and hereditamen's; but he must be of the whole blood, not a bastard, alien, &c. None but the heir general, according to the course of the common law, can be heir to a warrantry, or sue an appeal of the death of his ancestor.
A custom in particular places varying the rules of descent at common law is good, such is the custom of gavel-kind, by which all the sons shall inherit, and make but one heir to their ancestor. The general custom of gavel-kind lands extends to sons only, but a special custom, that if one brother
herit, is good.
To prevent injury to creditors by the
Before this statute, if the ancestor had devised away the lands, a creditor by specialty had no remedy, either against the enacted, that all wills and testaments, limiheir or devisee. But by this statute it is tations, dispositions, or appointments, of or concerning any manors, messuages, lands, tenements, or hereditaments, or of any rent, profit, term, or charge out of the same, whereof any person at the time of his decease shall be seised in fee-simple, posses sion, reversion, or remainder, or have power
to dispose of the same by his last will and testament, shall be deemed and taken only against such creditor as aforesaid, his heirs, successors, executors, administrators, and assigns, and every of them, to be fraudulent, and clearly, absolutely, and utterly void, frustrate, and of none effect; any pretence colour, feigned or presumed consideration, or any other matter or thing to the contrary notwithstanding. And in those cases every such creditor may maintain his action of debt upon his said lands and specialties, against the heir at law of such obligor, and such devisee and devisees jointly, by virtue of this act; and such devisee and devisees shall be liable and chargeable for a false plea by him or them pleaded, in the same manner as any heir should have been for false plea by him pleaded, or for not confessing the lands or tenements to him descended. Provided, that where there hath been or shall be any limitation or appointment, devise, or disposition, of any manors, messuages, lands, tenements, or hereditaments, for the raising or payment of any real or just debt, or any portion, sum or sums of money, for any child or children of any person other than the heir at law, in pursuance of any marriage, contract, or agreement in writing, bona fide made before such marriage; the same and every of them shall be in full force, and the same manors, &c. may be holden and enjoyed by every such person, his heirs, executors, administrators, and assigns, for whom the said limitation, appointment, devise, or disposition was made, and by his trustee, his heirs, executors, administrators, and assigns, for such estate or interest as shall be so limited or appointed, devised or disposed, until such debt or debts, portion or portions, shall be raised, paid, and satisfied. And every devisee made liable by this act, shall be liable and chargeable in the same manner as the heir at law, by force of this act, notwithstanding the lands, tenements, and hereditaments to him or them devised, shall be aliened before the action brought. In the construction of this statute it has been held, that though a man is prevented from defeating his creditors by will, that yet any set. tlement or disposition he shall make in his life-time of his lands, whether voluntary or not, will be good against bond creditors; for that was not provided against by the statute, which only took care to secure such creditors from any imposition, which might be supposed in a man's last sickness; but if he gave away his estate in his life-time, this
prevented the descent of so much to the heir, and consequently took away their remedy against him, who was only liable in respect of the lands descended; and as a bond is no lien whatsoever on the lands in the hands of the obligor, much less can it be so, when they are given away to a stran. ger.
HEIR looms, in law, are such goods and personal chattels, as, contrary to the nature of chattels, shall go by special custom to the heir, along with the inheritance, and not to the executor of the last proprietor.
HEISTERA, in botany, so called in honour of Laurence Heister, a genus of the Decandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Holoraceæ. Aurantia, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx fivecleft; petals five; drupe with a very large coloured calyx. There is but one species, viz. H. coccinea, a native of Martinico, in close woods near torrents. The French inhabitants call it bois perdrix, birds being very fond of the fruit.
HELENIUM, in botany, a genus of the Syngenesia Polygamia Superflua class and order. Natural order of Compositæ Dis. coideæ. Corymbiferæ, Jussieu. There are two species. These plants are natives of America, where they grow wild in great pleuty, in the woods and other shady places, where the ground is moist.
HELIACAL, in astronomy, a term applied to the rising or setting of the stars, or, more strictly speaking, to their emersion out of and immersion into the rays and superior splendour of the sun. A star is said to rise heliacally, when after having been in conjunction with the sun, and on that account invisible, it comes to be at such a distance from him, as to be seen in the morning before sun-rising; the sun, by his apparent motion, receding from the star towards the east; on the contrary, the heliacal setting is when the sun approaches so near a star, as to hide it with his beams, which prevent the fainter light of the star from being perceived, so that the terms apparition and occuitation would be more proper than rising and setting.
All the fixed stars in the zodiac, as also the superior planets, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, rise heliacally in the morning, a little before sun sing, and a few days after they have set cosmic ily. Again, they set heliacally in the even.ng, a hitte before their achronycal setting. But the moon, whose motion eastward is always quicker than the apparent motion of the sun, rises