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beads. 5. Capitata, capitate, when they grow thicker towards the point, and terminate in a knob or head. 6. Fissiles, fissile, i. e. cleft, when they are capitate, and have the head or knob divided longitudinally into three or four parts or laminæ. 7. Perfoliata, perfoliated, when the head or knob is divided horizontally. 8. Pectinata, pectinated, i, e. resembling a comb, when they have a longitudinal series of hairs projecting from them, in form of a comb. 9. Barbatæ, barbed, when they have little projections or barbs placed on their sides; they are either longiores, longer than the body; breviores, shorter than the body; or, mediocres, of the same length with the body. The mouth, in most insects, is placed in the under part of the head; sometimes, however, it is situated in the thorax, and in a few instances is entirely wanting; it is furnished with palpæ, or feelers; rostrum, i. e. beak or snout; la bium, or lip; maxillæ, or jaws, placed transversely, and moving laterally; dentes, or teeth; lingua, or tongue; palatum, or palate: the feelers, which are four or six in number, are attached to the mouth, and have two, four, or three articulations: the stemmata are three prominent shining points on the top of the head.
II. Truncus, the trunk, to which the legs are attached, is situated between the head and the abdomen; it is divided into, 1. The thorax, or chest, which is the superior part. 2. Scutellum, i.e. small shield or escutcheon, which is the posterior part. 3. The breast and sternum, which is the inferior part.
III. The Abdomen, that part which contains the stomach, intestines, and other viscera, consists of several annular segments; it is perforated on the sides with spiracula, or breathing-holes; the upper part of it is termed tergum, or back; the inferior part venter, or belly; the posterior part anus.
IV. Artus, the extremities, are the wings, legs, and tail.
(L.) Alæ, the wings, are two or four; they are either, 1. Planæ, i. e. plain, such as cannot be folded up by the insect: or 2. Plicailes, or folding, such as can be folded up y the insect at pleasure. 3. Erectæ, erect, uch as have their superior surfaces brought ito contact, and stand upright when the isect is at rest. 4. Patentes, spreading; sch as are extended horizontally. 5. Inambenes, incun:bent; such as rest on the upper part of the abdomen. 6. Deflexæ, bent down; such as are partly incumbent, bit have their exterior edge inclined to
wards the sides of the abdomen. 7. Reversæ, reversed; such as are incumbent, but inverted. 8. Dentatæ, such as have their edges notched or serrated. 9. Caudatæ, such as have processes extended from their extremitres like a tail. 10. Reticulata, netted; when the vessels of the wings put on the appearance of net-work. 11. Pictæ, painted; such as are marked with coloured spots, bands, streaks, lines, or dots. 12. Notatæ, marked with specks. 13. Ornatæ, adorned with little eyes, or circular spots, containing a spot of a different colour in their centre: the central spot is termed pupil; the exterior one is called iris; this may happen either in the primary or se condary wings, on their upper or under surfaces: the superior wing is called primary, and the inferior secondary, to avoid confusion, as they may be at times reversed. The elytra are hard shells, occupying the place of the upper wings. They are for the most part moveable, and are either, 1. Truncata, truncated, when shorter than the abdomen, and terminated by a transverse line. 2. Spinosa, or prickly, when their surfaces are covered with sharp points or prickles. 3. Serrata, serrated, when their edges are notched. 4. Scabra, rough, when their surface resembles a file. 5. Striata, striated, when marked with slender longitudinal furrows, 6. Porcata, ridged, when marked with elevated ridges. 7. Sulcata, furrowed. 8. Punctata, marked with dots. 9. Fastigiata, when formed like the roof of a house. The hemelytra, as it were half-elytra, partaking partly of the nature of crustaceous shells, and membranaceous wings, being formed of an intermediate substance. Halteres, or poisers, are small orbicular bodies placed on stalks, situated under the wings of insects, of the order Diptera.
(II.) Pedes, the legs, are divided into, 1. Femur, or thigh, that part which is joined to the trunk. 2. Tibia, or shank. 3. Tarsus, or foot. 4. Ungues, hooks or nails. 5. Manus, (chela), hands or claws, simple, with a moveable thumb, as in the crab. The hind legs are termed, 1. Cursorii, formed for running. 2. Saltatorii, formed for leaping. 3. Natatorii, formed for swimming.
(III) Canda, the tail, which terminates the abdomen, is 1. Solitaria, i. e. single. 2. Bicornis, i. e two-horned, or double. 3. Simplex, simple, i. e unarmed. 4. Armata, i. e. furnished; 1. with forceps or pincers: 2. with furca, a fork : 3. with one
or more setæ, or bristles: 4. with an acu leus, or sting, either smooth or barbed. A sting is a weapon frequently hollow, with which some insects are furnished, and through which they discharge a poison into the wound they inflict.
The sexes of insects are commonly two, male and female. Neuters are to be met with among those insects which live in swarms, such as ants, bees, &c.
The majority of insects are observed to be annual, finishing the whole term of their lives in the space of a year or less, and many do not live half that time; nay, there are some which do not survive many hours; but this latter period is to be understood only of the animals when in their complete or ultimate form, for the larvæ of such as are of this short duration have in reality lived a very long time under water, of which they are natives; and it is observed, that water insects, in general, are of longer duration than land insects. Some few insects, however, in their complete state, are supposed to live a considerable time, as bees for instance; and it is well known that some of the butterfly tribe, though the major part perish before winter, will yet survive that season in a state of torpidity, and again appear and fly abroad in the succeeding spring; spiders are also thought to live a considerable time, and some species of the genus cancer are said to live several years, especially the common lobster, &c.: it should be observed, however, that these animals, in the opinion of some modern naturalists, constitute a different tribe of beings from insects properly so called. Linnæus has divided insects into seven orders, I. COLEOPTERA; II. HEMIPTERA; III. LEPIDOPTERA; IV. NEUROPTERA; V. HYMEROPTERA ; VI. DIPTERA ; VII. APTERA, which see: and from these the several genera are referred to.
ENTRY, in law, is the taking possession of lands or tenements where the party has a title of entry, or an immediate right to possess them. This may be in person or by attorney, or is an entry in law, which is merely the making continual claim, by law considered equivalent to entry. A right of entry is when a party may have his remedy either by entering into the lands, or by action to recover it. A title of entry is where one has a lawful entry in the land which another has, but has no action to recover it till he has entered.
Entry is a summary remedy against certain species of injury by ouster, or putting VOL. III.
out of possession of lands; when the party must make a formal but peaceable entry, declares that he takes possession; or may enter upon any part in the same county in the name of the whole; and if he cannot go upon the land for bodily fear, he may make a claim as near the estate as he can, which must be repeated once within every year and day, and is called continual claim. This remedy is admitted only where the adverse possession originally commenced by wrong, as in the instances technically called abatement, intrusion, or disseisin. On a discontinuance or deforcement the party is put to his action. Even in the former cases, when the original wrongful possessor dies, and the land comes to his heir, the right of entry is tolled, i. e. taken away by the descent. If the claimant was under disability, from age, coverture, &c. the entry is not tolled by descent; nor in case of an actual disseisin, unless the disseisor was in peaceable possession for five years. Stat. 32 Henry VIII. c. 33. Entry must be made within 20 years after the claimant's right shall accrue, 21 Jac. I. c. 16; and by 4 and 5 Anne c. 16, no entry shall avail to save this statute, unless an action is commenced and prosecuted with effect upon it within one year after; and, finally, by stat. 5 Ric. II. st. 1. c. 8, entry must be pursued in a peaceable manner; for if one turns or keeps another out of possession forcibly, it is not only the subject of a civil remedy, but of a fine and punishment for a misde
ENTRY, the writ of, is a possessory remedy which disproves the title of the tenant or possessor, by shewing the unlawful means by which he entered or continues in possession. It was formerly an usual mode of recovering lands, but is now disused for the more convenient action of ejectment, and is never brought when that remedy can be used. There is much nice technical learning concerning it, which it would be vain to attempt to abridge in a popular work. It derives different denominations from the different cases to which the writ is applied, and those are generally derived from the terms in which it states the wrongful entry to have been made, or sets out the different degrees of descent through which the lands have passed in the possession of the wrongful tenants. After a certain degree of descents these are no longer noticed in the writ. The writ against the imme diate wrong doer is called a writ of entry in nature of assize; that upon one descent,
an entry sur disseisin in the per, and upon an entry where the first disseisor has enfeoffed another, and he a third, it is an entry sur disseisin in le per et eni. An entry in le post states only that the tenant hath not entry but after (post) the disseisin of A. B. which is allowed in cases beyond the foregoing degrees. There are other writs adapted to particular cases, which we shall only mention by name, and refer to the larger dictionaries of the law for their precise meaning: such are
ENTRY ad communem legem, for the reversioner of tenants in dower by courtesy for life, &c.
ENTRY ad terminum qui præteriit, a writ for the reversioner after the end of a term or estate for life, against a stranger in pos
ENTRY in casu consimili.
ENTRY causa matrimonii prælocuti. Several points of law occur, as to the effect of an entry in the case of joint tenancy and coparcenary; of entry by the heir; of entry to divest an estate; to take advantage of a condition which cannot be investigated here; but in general it may be observed, that a bare entry, without expulsion, makes only a seisin; so that the law thereupon adjudges him in possession who has the right.
ENVELOPE, in fortification, a work of earth, sometimes in form of a simple parapet, and at others, like a small rampart with a parapet: it is raised sometimes on the ditch, and sometimes beyond it.
ENVOY, a person deputed fo negotiate some affair with any foreign prince or state. Those sent from the courts of France, Britain, Spain, &c. to any petty prince or state, such as the princes of Germany, the republics of Venice, Genoa, &c. go in quality of envoys, not embassadors; and such a character only do those persons bear, who go from any of the principal courts of Europe to another, when the affair they go upon is not very solemn or important. There are envoys ordinary and extraordinary, as well as embassadors; they are equally the same under the protection of the law of nations, and enjoy all the privileges of embassadors, only differing from them in this, that the same ceremonies are not performed to them.
ENURE, in law, to take place or effect, or be available, as a release made to a tenant for a term of life, shall enure to him in the reversion.
EPACRIS, in botany, a genus of the Pentandria Monogynia class and order. Calyx five-parted; corolla funnel-form, villous; nectariferous scales growing to the germ; capsule five-celled, five-valved; the partitions from the middle of the valves; seeds minute and numerous. There are four species, natives of New Zealand.
EPACT, a number arising from the excess of the common solar year above the lunar, whereby the age of the moon may be found out every year. See CHRONOLOGY. The excess of the solar year above the lunar is 11 days; or the epact of any year expresses the number of days from the last new moon of the old year, which was the beginning of the present lunar year to the first of January. The first year of the cycle of the moon, the epact is 0, because the lunar year begins with the solar. On the second, the lunar year has begun 11 days before the solar year, therefore the epact is 11. On the third, it has begun twice 11 before the solar year, therefore the epact is 22. On the fourth, it begins three times 11 days sooner than the solar year, the epact would therefore be 33; but 30 days being a synodical month, must that year be intercalated; or that year must be reckoned to consist of thirteen synodical months, and there remains three, which is the true epact of the year; and so on to the end of the cycle, adding 11 to the epact of the last year, and always rejecting 30, gives the epact of the present year. Thus to adjust the lunar year to the solar through the whole of 19 years, 12 of them must consist of 12 synodical months each, and 7 of 13, by adding a month of 30 days to every year when the epact would exceed 30, and a month of 29 days to the last year of the cycle, which makes in all 209 days, i. e. 19 × 11; so that the intercalary or embolimæan years in this cycle are 4, 7, 10, 12, 15, 18, 19.
If the new moons returned exactly at the same time after the expiration of nineteen years, as the council of Nice supposed they would do (when they fixed the rule for the observation of Easter, and marked the new moons in the calendar for each year of the lunar cycle) then the golden number multiplied by 11, would always give the epact. But in a Julian century, the new moons anticipate, or happen earlier than that council imagined they would by of a day. In a Gregorian common century, which is one day shorter than a Julian century, they happen of a day later, (1 day). Now × 3 = for the three common
renturies, but being subtracted, on acCount of the Gregorian bissextile century, there will remain # Therefore in four Gregorian centuries the new moons will happen later by 43 of a day, and the epacts must be decreased accordingly.
At present the Gregorian epact is 11 days short of the Julian epact; but the quotient of the number of the centuries divided by 4, which at this time is 4, multiplied by, with the addition of the remainder 1 multiplied by, makes in all but, or 7 days +; therefore, i. e. 3 days + must be added to complete the 11 days. Whence we have the following
General rule for finding the Gregorian Epact for ever. Divide the centuries of any year of the Christian æra by 4, (rejecting the subsequent numbers ;) multiply the remainder by 17, and to this product add the quotient multiplied by 43; divide the product+86 by 25; multiply the golden number by 11, from which subtract the last quotient; and rejecting the thirties, the remainder will be the epact.
according to the rank of the wearer: and for the same reason they are made either of worsted, or of silver or gold lace. In France all degrees of rank in the army may be instantly known from the epaulette; but this is not the case here. Lately epaulettes have been introduced into the navy, and in that service the following are the gradations of rank as distinguished by them. Masters and commanders have one epaulette on the left shoulder: post captains under three years, one epaulette on the right shoulder, afterwards two epaulettes: rear admirals have one star on the strap of the epaulette, vice-admirals two stars, and admirals three stars.
EPHA, or EPHAH, in Jewish antiquity, a measure for things dry, containing 1.0961
of a bushel. See MEASURE.
EPHEDRA, in botany, a genus of the Dioecia Monodelphia class and order. Natural order of Coniferæ. Essential character: male, calyx of the ament two-cleft; corolla none; stamens seven; anthers four inferior, three superior: female, calyx twoparted, five-fold; corolla none; pistils two; seeds covered with a berried calyx. There are two species; viz. E. distachya, great shrubby horse-tail, or sea-grape, and E. monostachya, small shrubby horse tail. These plants vary extremely. Some in the south of Europe are only a hand in height, whilst others are three feet: they are found in most of the southern parts of the Russian dominions, from the Volga to the Lena, and southwards to Persia and India. The berheat in the throat: they are eaten by the ries are sweetish, mucose, and leave a little Russian peasants, and the wandering hordes
of all Great Tartary.
EPHEMERA, day fly, in natural history, a genus of insects of the order Neuroptera. Mouth without mandibles; feelers four, very short, filiform; antennæ short, filiform; above the eyes are two or three large stemmata; wings erect, the lower ones much shorter; tail terminating in long bristles or hairs. These short-lived animals, of which there are about twenty species, in two divisions, according as they have two or three hairs in the tail, are found every where about waters in the summer, and in their perfect state seldom live more than a day, some of them not an hour, during which time they perform all the functions of life, and answer all the ends of nature. larva lives under water, and is eagerly sought after by trout and other fish: it is six-footed, active, and furnished with a tail
and six lateral fins or gills; the pupa resembles the larva, except in having rudiments of future wings. The larva is altogether aquatic, the complete insect aerial. In the former state it lives two or three years; but as a perfect animal it survives but a very few hours, perishing in the course of the same evening that gives it birth. The most common species is the E. vulgata, or common May-fly, so plentiful in the early part of summer about the brinks of rivulets and stagnant waters. It is of a greenish colour, with transparent wings, elegantly mottled with brown, and is furnished with three very long black bristles. It flutters in the evening about the surface of the water; but during the day is generally seen in a quiescent posture, with the wings closed, and applied to each other in an upright position.
EPHEMERIDES, in literary history, an appellation given to those books or journals, which shew the motions and places of the planets for every day in the year. It is from the tables contained in these ephemerides, that eclipses, and all the variety of aspects of the planets, are found.
EPHIELIS, in botany, a genus of the Octandria Monogynia class and order. Essential character: calyx five-parted; petals five, with claws; nectary ten scales, two to each petal; capsule oblong, one-celled, two-valved, two-seeded. There is but one species; viz. E. guianensis: this is a lofty tree, growing in the forests of Guiana, where it flowers in the month of October.
EPIBATERIUM, in botany, a genus of the Monoecia Hexandria class and order. Essential character: calyx double; outer six-leaved, small; inner three-leaved, large; petals six, three outer, between the calycine leaflets; three inner; drupes three, subglobular, mucronate, with the three permanent styles; inclosing a kidney-form nut. There is only one species; viz. E. pendulum. EPIC, or heroic poem, a poem expressed in narration, formed upon a story partly real and partly feigned; representing, in a sublime stile, some signal and fortunate action, distinguished by a variety of great events, to form the morals, and affect the mind with the love of heroic virtue.
EPICHRYSUM, in botany, a genus of the Cryptogamia Fungi class and order. Fungus rounded, concave; seeds globular; tail Jess, attached to a branched thread creeping within. There is but one species; riz. E.
EPICUREAN philosophy, the doctrine
or system of philosophy maintained by Epicurus and his followers.
Epicurus, the Athenian, one of the greatest philosophers of his age, was obliged to Democritus for almost his whole system, notwithstanding he piqued himself upon deriving every thing from his own fund. He wrote a great number of books, which are made to amount to above 300. Though none of them are come down to us, no ancient philosopher's system is better known than his, for which we are mostly indebted to the poet Lucretius, Diogenes Laertius, and Tully.
His philosophy consisted of three parts, canonical, physical, and ethereal. The first was about the canons, or rules of judging. The censure which Tully passes upon him for his despising logic, will hold true only with regard to the logic of the Stoics, which he could not approve of, it being too full of nicety and quirk. Epicurus was not acquainted with the analytical method of division and argumentation, nor was he so curious in modes and formation as the Stoics. Soundness and simplicity of sense, assisted with some natural reflections, was all his art. His search after truth proceeded only by the senses, to the evidence of which he gave so great a certainty, that he considered them as an infallible rule of truth, and termed them the first natural light of mankind.
In the second part of his philosophy he laid down atoms, space, and gravity as the first principles of all things. He did not deny the existence of a God, but thought it beneath his majesty to concern himself with human affairs. He held him a blessed, immortal being, having no affairs of his own to take care of, and above meddling with those of others. See ATOMIC PHI LOSOPHY.
As to his ethics, he made the supreme good of man to consist in pleasure, and, consequently, supreme evil in pain. Nature itself, says he, teaches us this truth, and prompts us from our birth to procure whatever gives us pleasure, and avoid what gives us pain. To this end he proposes a remedy against the sharpness of pain: this was to divert the mind from it, by turning our whole attention upon the pleasures we have formerly enjoyed. He held that the wise man must be happy, as long as he is wise; that pain, not depriving him of his wisdom, cannot deprive him of his happiness.
EPICYCLE, in the ancient astronomy, a little circle whose centre is in the circumference of a greater circle; or it is a small