## How We Subtract: A Little Chat with Teachers on Methods of Subtraction and how to Teach One of Them |

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accuracy added additive method advantages America answer appeared Arithmetic Arts attention begin borrowing called carry cents century chapter child classes column common cover decomposition method developed difference digits discussed division dollars drill early editions equal-additions method example exercises experiment explained facts figure fractions give given grades greater Hence hundred increased John known later learning leaves less lower Mathematics meaning method of equal method of subtraction minuend mixed needed NOTE operation popular practice present primary facts principles problem procedure published pupil questions rationalize Recorde Recorde's remainder requires rule schools seen shown simple skills STONE subtrahend Suppose taken taught teachers teaching tens tests textbooks thing thirty tion types units upper whole numbers Write written

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Page 17 - Place the least number under the greatest, so that units may stand under units, tens under tens, &c. and draw a line under them. 2. Begin at the right Iwnd, and take each figure in the lower line from the figure above it, and set down the remainder.

Page 30 - RULE Place the less number under the greater, units under units, tens under tens, and so on. Draw a line below...

Page 49 - The method of equal additions shows to a decided advantage with young children in accuracy and rapidity; and this is true both in the case of superior children who already had learned something of both methods, and also in the case of the inferior children who, prior to the experiment, really knew nothing of either method.

Page 48 - The method of equal additions in subtraction taught to children late in school life, who have hitherto worked by decomposition, produces results in a few weeks equal on the whole and superior in the weaker children to those produced by the method of decomposition.

Page 31 - Note. The reason of borrowing ten will appear if we consider, that, when two numbers are equally increased by adding the same to both, their difference will be equal. Thus, the difference between 3 and 5 is 2; add the number 10 to each of these figures (3 and 5) they become 13 and 15, still the difference is 2. When we proceed as above directed, we add or suppose to be added, 10 to the minuend and we likewise add...

Page 36 - From 68 99 84 74 take 42 76 31 32 Answers : 26 23 53 42 6. How many are 53 less 18 ? 53 = 5 tens + 3 units. 18 = 1 ten + 8 units. We cannot take 8 units from 3 units ; we therefore take one of the 5 tens and add it to the 3 units. 53 = 4 tens +13 units. 18 = 1 ten + 8 units. 53 — 18 = 3 tens 4- 5 units = 35.

Page 37 - From 468 532 769 497 take 351 412 347 182 *18. a. How many are 684 less 296 ? From 684 = 6 hundred + 8 tens + 4 units, take 296 = 2 hundred + 9 tens + 6 units. We cannot take 6 units from 4 units ; we therefore take one of the 8 tens and add it to the 4 units, so that the problem will read : From 684 = 6 hundred + 7 tens + 14 units, take 296 = 2 hundred + 9 tens + 6 units. We cannot take 9 tens from 7 tens ; we therefore take one of the 6 hundred and add it to the 7 tens ; and our problem is now...

Page 34 - If their sum is equal to the minuend the work may be regarded as right.

Page 33 - Place the less number under the greater, so that units of the same order shall stand in the same column.

Page 17 - ... 2. Begin at the right hand, and take each figure in the lower line from the figure above it, and set down the remainder. 3. If the lower figure is greater than that, above it, add ten to the upper figure ; from which number so increased, take the lower and set down the remainder, carrying one to the next lower number, with which proceed as before, and so on till the whole is finished.