## The Solid Earth: An Introduction to Global GeophysicsGeophysics is a broad subject that encompasses not only the physics of the Earth, but also the physics of the atmosphere and oceans. The heart of geophysics, however, is the theory of the solid Earth. The Solid Earth is a general introduction to the study of modern physics of the solid Earth, including the workings of both the Earth's surface and its deep interior. The book begins with a brief historical introduction to developments in geophysics. The next chapter discusses the important theory of plate tectonics, and is followed logically by a chapter on geomagnetism and palaeomagnetism. Subsequent chapters deal with the subjects of seismology, gravity, radioactivity and the age of the Earth and heat flow in the Earth. The book concludes with chapters on the physics of the oceanic and continental lithospheres. The emphasis throughout the discussion is on basic physical principles rather than instrumentation or data handling. Many helpful worked examples are given in the text, and, in addition, there are problems of various degrees of difficulty at the end of each chapter. Appendices explain more advanced mathematical topics and theories of seismology for mathematically inclined students. |

### Contents

Introduction | 1 |

3 | |

Tectonics on a Sphere The Geometry of Plate Tectonics | 4 |

22 A Flat Earth | 8 |

23 Rotation Vectors and Rotation Poles | 10 |

24 PresentDay Plate Motions | 11 |

25 Plate Boundaries Can Change with Time | 18 |

26 Triple Junctions | 19 |

Heat | 219 |

72 Conductive Heat Flow | 220 |

73 Calculation of Simple Geotherms | 226 |

Total Heat Loss from the Earth | 233 |

75 Oceanic Heat Flow | 237 |

76 Continental Heat Flow | 243 |

77 The Adiabat and Melting in the Mantle | 246 |

78 Convection in the Mantle | 249 |

27 Absolute Plate Motions | 24 |

Problems | 26 |

Bibliography | 30 |

Past Plate Motions | 32 |

32 Dating the Oceanic Plates | 41 |

33 Reconstruction of Past Plate Motions | 51 |

Problems | 72 |

Seismology Measuring the Interior | 76 |

42 Earthquake Seismology | 85 |

43 The Interior of the Earth | 105 |

44 Refraction Seismology | 119 |

45 Reflection Seismology | 133 |

Problems | 148 |

Bibliography | 156 |

Gravity | 160 |

53 Gravity of the Earth | 163 |

54 The Shape of the Earth | 164 |

55 Gravity Anomalies | 166 |

56 Observed Gravity and Geoid Anomalies | 176 |

57 Flexure of the Lithosphere and the Viscosity of the Mantle | 180 |

Problems | 187 |

189 | |

Geochronology | 191 |

62 General Theory | 192 |

63 RubidiumStrontium | 200 |

64 UraniumLead | 202 |

65 ThoriumLead | 205 |

67 ArgonArgon | 206 |

68 SamariumNeodymium | 207 |

69 Fission Track Dating | 210 |

610 The Age of the Earth | 213 |

Bibliography | 217 |

79 Thermal Structure of the Core | 254 |

710 Forces Acting on the Plates | 260 |

Geotherms in the Continental Crust | 263 |

Problems | 271 |

Bibliography | 274 |

The Oceanic Lithosphere Ridges Transforms Trenches and Oceanic Islands | 278 |

82 Oceanic Lithosphere | 284 |

83 Deep Structure of Midocean Ridges | 293 |

84 Shallow Structure of Midocean Ridges | 298 |

85 Transform Faults | 308 |

86 Subduction Zones | 320 |

87 Oceanic Islands | 335 |

Problems | 339 |

341 | |

The Continental Lithosphere | 350 |

92 The Growth of Continents | 355 |

93 Sedimentary Basins and Continental Margins | 378 |

94 Continental Rift Zones | 398 |

95 The Archaean | 405 |

Problems | 409 |

411 | |

Scalars Vectors and Differential Operators | 419 |

Theory of Elasticity and Elastic Waves | 425 |

Geometry of Ray Paths and Inversion of Earthquake Body Wave TimeDistance Curves | 436 |

The LeastSquares Method | 441 |

The Error Function | 443 |

Units and Symbols | 445 |

Numerical Data | 452 |

Glossary | 454 |

463 | |

### Common terms and phrases

America anomaly assumed axis basalt base basins beneath block boundary calculated conduction constant continental continents convection cooling core crust crustal curve deep density depth Depth km determined direction distance earth earth's magnetic field earthquake East equation estimate example Figure force formed Geophys given gives gravity heat flow horizontal increases indicate initial layer less lithosphere lower magnetic field magnitude mantle mass material means measured melting method motion normal North observed occur oceanic oceanic crust original outer core P-wave Pacific phase plane plate pole positive possible present produced ratio record reflection refraction region relative result ridge rift Rise rocks rotation sample Sect sediments seismic seismic refraction shown shows South spreading structure subduction zone surface tectonics temperature thermal thickness transform faults trench unit upper mantle vector velocity wave

### References to this book

Petroleum Basins of South America A. J. Tankard,Ramiro Suárez Soruco,Herman J. Welsink No preview available - 1995 |