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Section I.


ARTICLE 1. 1. There is one bird upon one branch of a tree, and one upon another; how many birds are there upon both branches?

2. In going through the woods Walter saw one black squirrel and two gray squirrels; how many squirrels did he see?

3. Mary has three flowers in her left hand and one in her right hand; how many flowers has she?

4. If Mary puts one of the flowers which is in her left hand, with the flower in her right hand, how many flowers will she then have in her left hand? in her right hand? in both?

5. There are four cows in the yard: one of them is black and the rest are red; how many are red?

6. Robert has three white rabbits and two black rabbits; how many rabbits has he?

7. John had five cents, and spent four of them for a lemon; how many cents had he left?

8. Henry bought two books, his father gave him three books, and his teacher gave him one; how many books had he?

9. George had six figs: he ate one and gave two to his brother; how many had he left?

10. There are six horses in the stable and one in the yard; how many horses are there in both places? 11. James had seven buttons on his jacket, but he lost two of them; how many had he left?

12. Martha has seven cents; how many more cents must she have before she can buy a book which costs eight cents?

13. Lottie has four slate pencils and four lead pencils; how many pencils has she?

14. If William has eight marbles and George has six, how many more marbles has William than George? 15. Eight boys were playing ball, but three of them went away; how many remained?

16. Mary and Emma together gave nine cents to a poor man; if Mary gave eight of the cents, how many cents did Emma give?

17. How many more cents did the poor man receive from Mary than from Emma?

18. If this poor man should spend five cents for bread, how many cents would he have left?

19. Edwin caught nine fishes, and threw away two of them; how many had he left?

20. A newsboy sold three papers to one man, three to another, and three to another; how many papers did he sell?

21. If the newsboy got one cent for each of his papers, how many cents did he get for all?

22. If Levi has nine chickens in one brood, and one chicken besides, how many chickens has he?

23. If two of Levi's chickens should be carried off by a hawk, how many would he have left?

24. If you have seven marbles in one hand and three in the other, how many marbles have you in

both hands? How many more marbles have you in one hand than in the other?

25. Jane is ten years old, and Daniel is six years old; how many years older is Jane than Daniel? 26. If a spoon costs one dollar, a cup three dollars, and a vase five, how much do all cost?

27. Richard picked up one apple under one tree, four under another, one under another, and two under another; how many did he pick up in all?

28. Richard found some ripe pears under his tree: he gave three pears to his mother, one to Susan, one to Mary, two to William, and kept two himself; how many did he find?

2. The questions in the previous article are about single things, or collection of things. A single thing is a Unit.

A collection of units is a Number.

In performing some of the above examples, numbers of the same kind have been counted together, to find how many are made; such a process is Addition.

In performing some of the examples, a part of a number has been taken away to find how many are left; such a process is Subtraction.

1. One and one are how many? 2. Two and one are how many? One and two are how many?

3. Three and one are how many? Two and two are how many? One and three are how many?

4. Name any two numbers which together make five; name any other two.

5. Name every two numbers which together make six. Ans. Five and one; four and two; three and three; two and four; one and five.

6. Name every two numbers which together make seven. Ans. Six and one; five and two, etc.

7. Name every two numbers which together make right.

8. Name every two numbers which together make aine.

9. Name every two numbers which together make


10. Two and how many are four? seven? six? 11. Three and how many are five? eight? nine? 12. Four and how many are seven? nine? ten? 13. Five and how many are eight? ten? seven? 14. Six and how many are nine? eight? ten? 15. Seven and how many are eight? ten? nine? 16. Eight and how many are nine? ten?

Section II.


3. 1. A farmer sold three calves, seven pigs, and one cow; how many animals did he sell?

2. In a room there were seven common chairs, two arm chairs, and two rocking chairs; how many chairs were there in the room?

3. After giving away seven of her canary birds, Eliza had four left; how many had she at first?

4. Joseph had eleven oranges in his basket: he sold three to one person and five to another; how many had he left?

5. Yesterday a hen's nest had ten eggs in it, and to-day there are two eggs more than there were yesterday; how many eggs are there in the nest to-day?

6. If three eggs should be taken from a nest of twelve eggs, how many eggs would remain?

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