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From this corner I run south 12 links, to a point west of the corner to fractional sections 30 and 31, on the left bank of the river. Thence continue south 314 links, to a point from which the corner to fractional sections 30 and 31, on the left bank of the river, bears N. 72° E., which gives for the distance across the river 9,65 chains. The length of the line between sections 30 and 31, is as follows:

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Here the method of finding the distance across the river, and of showing the amount of the jog or deviation from a straight line, is shown.

MEANDERING NOTES. (New Manual, p. 42.)

293. Begin at the corner to fractional sections 25 and 30, on the range line. I chain south of the quarter section corner on said line, and run thence down stream, with the meanders of the left bank of Chickeeles River in fractional section 30, as follows:


S. 12° W. 13,50 To mouth of Elk River, 200 links wide; comes from

At 15 chains, mouth of stream, 25 links wide, comes from S.E.

S.234°W. 8,80 To the corner, to fractional sections 31 and 36, on the range line, and 8,56 chains north of the corner to sections 1, 6, 31 and 36, or S. W. corner to this township. Land level, and rich soil; subject to inundation. Timber-oak, hickory, beech, elm, etc.

RE-ESTABLISHING LOST CORNERS. (New Instructions, p. 27.)

294. Let the annexed diagram represent an east and west line between



two townships, and that all traces of the corner to sections 4, 5, 32 and 33 are lost or have disappeared. I restored and re-established said corner in the following manņer:

Begin at the quarter section corner marked a on diagram, on the line between sections 4 and 33. One of the witness trees to this corner has fallen, and the post is gone.

The black oak (witness tree), 18 inches diameter, bearing N. 25° E., 32 links distance, is standing, and sound. I find also the black oak station or line tree (marked b on diagram), 24 inches diameter, called for at 37,51 chains, and 2,49 chains west of the quarter section corner. Set a


new post at the point a for quarter section corner, and mark for witness tree. A white oak, 20 inches diameter, bears N. 34° W., 37 links dist. West with the old marked line.

Variation 18o 257 E.

At 40,00 chains, set a post for temporary corner to sections 4, 5, 32 and 33.

At 80,06 chains, to a point 7 links south of the quarter section corner (marked c on diagram), on line between sections 5 and 32. This corner agrees with its description in the field notes, and from which I run east, on a true line, between sections 5 and 32.

Variation 18° 22′.

At 40,03 chains, set a lime stone, 18 inches long, 12 inches wide, and 3 inches thick, for the re-established corner to sections 4, 5, 32 and 33, from which

A white oak, 12 inches diameter, bears N. 21° E., 41 links dist.
A white oak, 16 inches diameter, bears N. 21° W., 21 links dist.
A black oak, 18 inches diameter, bears S. 17° W., 32 links dist.
A bur oak, 20 inches diameter, bears S. 21° E., 37 links dist.

Note 1. The diagram, and letters a, b, c, and that part in parentheses, are not in the Instructions.

Note 2. Hence it appears that the surveyor has run between the nearest undisputed corners, and divided the distance pro rata, or in proportion to the original subdivision. Although in this case the line has been found blazed, and one line or station tree found standing, the required section corner is not found by producing the line from a, through b, to d. Although I have met a few surveyors who have endeavored to re-establish corners in this manner, I do not know by what law, theory or practice they could have acted. It is in direct violation of the fundamental act of Congress, 11 Feb., 1805, which says that lines are to be run "from one corner to the corresponding corner opposite. (See sequel Geodætical Jurisprudence.)

Re-establishing Lost Corners. (From Old Instructions, p. 63.)

295. Where old section or township corners have been completely destroyed, the places where they are to be re-established may be found, in timber, where the old blazes are tolerably plain, by the intersections of the east and west lines with the north and south lines.

If in prairie, in the following manner:

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At the end of the first 40 chains, set a temporary post corner to sections 25, 26, 35 and 36. At 80 chains, set a temporary quarter section corner post, and suppose also that 121,20 chains would be at a point due east or west of said corner 23, 24, 25 and 26. Note the falling or distance from the corner run for, and the distance run. Thence from said corner run south on a true line, dividing the surplus, 1,20 chains, equally between the three half miles, viz.: At 40,40 chains, establish a quarter section corner. At 80,80 chains, establish the corner to sections 25, 26, 35 and 36. Thence to the quarter section corner, on the line between sections 35 and 36, would be 40,40 chains.

The last mentioned section corner being established, east or west random or true lines can now be ran therefrom, as the case may require.

This method will in most cases enable the surveyor to renew missing corners, by re-establishing them in the right place.

But it may happen that after having established the north and south line, as in the above case, the corner to sections 26, 27, 34 and 35 can be found; also the quarter section corner on the line between 26 and 35. In this case it might be better to extend the line from the corner 26, 27, 34 and 35, to said quarter section corner, straight to its iutersection with the north and south line already established, and there establish the corner to sections 25, 26, 35 and 36. If this point should differ much from the point where you would place the corner by the first method laid down, it might be well to examine the line between sections 25 and 36.

Note 1. Hence it appears that the north and south lines are first established, in order that the east and west lines may be run therefrom; and that when the east and west lines can be correctly traced to the north and south line, that the point of intersection would be the required corner. It is also to be inferred that where the lines on both sides can be traced to the north and south line, a point equidistant between the points of intersection would be the required corner.

Note 2. It will not do to run from a section or quarter section corner on the west side of a north and south line, to a section corner, or quarter section, on the east side of the line, and make its intersection with the north and south line, the required corner, unless that these two lines were originally run on the same variation, which is seldom the case.

Note 3. Having found approximately the missing corner, we ought to

search diligently for the remains of the old post, mound, bearing trees, or the hole where it stood.

Bearing trees are sometimes so healed as to be difficult to know them. By standing about 2 feet from them, we can see part of the bark cut with an even face. We cut obliquely into the supposed blaze on the tree to the old wound. We count the layers of growth, each of which answers to one year. By these means we find the years since the survey has been made, which, on comparing with the field notes, we will always find not to differ more than one year.

Remains of a post, or where it once stood, may be determined as follows: Take the earth off the suspected place in layers with a sharp spade. By going down to 10 or 12 inches, we will find part of the post, or a circular surface, having the soil black and loose, being principally composed of vegetable matter. By putting an iron pin or arrow into it, we find it partially hollow. We dig 6 feet or more around the suspected place. Where such remains are found, we make a note of it, and of those present. Put charcoal, glass, delf, or slags of iron, in the hole, and re-establish the corner, noting the circumstances in the field book.

Ditches or lockspitting are sometimes made on the line to perpetuate it. This will be an infallible guide, and we only require to know if the edge or centre of the ditch was the line or boundary, or was it the face or top of the embankment. These answers can be had from the record, or from the persons who have made the ditch, or for whom it has been made. Should this ditch be afterwards ploughed and cultivated, we can see in June a difference in the appearance of the plants that grow thereon, being of a richer green than those adjoining the ditch. Or, we dig a trench across the suspected place. The section will plainly show where the old ditch was, for we will find the black or vegetable mould in the bottom of the old ditch. We may have the line pointed out by the oldest settlers, who are acquainted with the locality. Surveyors ought to spare no pains to have all things so correctly done as to prevent litigation, and to bear in mind that "where the original line was, there it is, and shall be."

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296. In surveying the public lands, the United States Deputy Survey ors are required to mark only the true lines, and establish on the ground the corners to townships, and sections, and quarter sections, on the range, township and sectional lines.

There are, no doubt, many cases where the corners are not in the right place, more particularly on east and west sectional lines, which, doubtless, is owing to the fact that some deputy surveyors did not always run the random lines the whole distance and close to the section corner, correct the line back, and establish the quarter section corner on the true line, and at average distance between the proper section corner; but only ran east or west (from the proper section corner) 40,00 chains, and there established the quarter section corner.

In all cases where the land has been sold, and the corners can be found and properly identified, according to the original approved field notes of the survey, this office has no authority to remove them.


Present Subdivision of Sections.

297. None of the acts of Congress, in relation to the public lands, make any special provision in respect to the manner in which the sub'divisions of sections should be made by deputy surveyors.

The following plan may, however, be safely adopted in respect to all sections, excepting those adjoining the north and west boundaries of a township, where the same is to be surveyed:

Let the annexed diagram rep- A

resent an interior section, as
sec. 10. B, D, H and F are
quarter section corners. Run
a true line from F to D; estab-
lish the corner E, making DE
= E F; then make straight
lines from E to B and from E D

to H, and you have the section
divided into quarters.

If it is required to subdivide the N. E. quarter into 40 acre tracts, make E L L F, and BOO C, and G PP H,

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M B, and FN N C. Run from M to N on a true line, and make MI
Here the N. E. quarter section is divided into 4 parts, and the

S. W. quarter section into two halves.

Note. As the east and west sides of every regular section is 80 chains, and that the quarter section corners on the north and south sides are at average distances, it is evident that the line B H will bisect D F, or any line parallel to G Q. Consequently the method in the section is the same in effect as that in the next.

But if, by a re-survey, we find that A B is not equal to B C, or that G H is not equal to H Q, then we measure the line from D to F, and establish the point E at average distance.

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