# Elements of Surveying, and Navigation: With Descriptions of the Instruments and the Necessary Tables

A. S. Barnes & Company, 1854 - Navigation - 322 pages
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### Contents

 Of Logarithms 9 Multiplication by Logarithms 15 Arithmetical Complement 17 Definitions 19 Geometrical Constructions 25 Gunters Scale 32 SECTION III 38 Theorems 44
 Of Supplying Omissions in the Field Notes 124 SECTION IV 131 Method of Ascertaining the Variations 138 LEVELLING AND TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEYING 145 Levelling Staves 151 Levelling for Section 157 Field Notes 166 BOOK IV 172

 Solution of RightAngled Triangles 54 PLANE SURVEYING 64 Verniers 75 Surveying Cross 81 Of Laying out Land 96 Surveying with the Compass Definitions etc 102 Of Balancing the Work 109 First Method of Plotting 117
 Triangulation 178 To Measure a Horizontal Angle 185 Plotting the Triangulation 192 OF NAVIGATION 201 SECTION III 207 SECTION V 214 Mercators Chart 221

### Popular passages

Page 14 - The logarithm of the quotient of two numbers is equal to the logarithm of the dividend minus the logarithm of the divisor.
Page 38 - The circumference of every circle is supposed to be divided into 360 equal parts, called degrees...
Page 13 - The logarithm of a number is the exponent of the power to which it is necessary to raise a fixed number, in order to produce the first number.
Page 21 - ... 20. An EQUILATERAL polygon is one which has all its sides equal; an equiangular polygon, is one which has all its angles equal. 21. Two polygons are mutually equilateral, when they have their sides equal each to each, and placed in the same order : that is to say, when following their bounding lines in the same direction, the first side of the one is equal to the first side of the other, the second to the second, the third to the third, and so on. 22. Two polygons are mutually equiangular, when...
Page 16 - The difference of the logarithms, as here used, means the algebraic difference ; so that, if the logarithm of the divisor have a negative characteristic, its sign must be changed to positive, after diminishing it by the unit, if any, carried in the subtraction from the decimal part of the logarithm.
Page 131 - Soon after the organization of the present government, several of the states ceded to the United States large tracts of wild land, and these together with the lands since acquired by treaty and purchase, constitute what is called the public lands or public domain. Previous to the year 1802 these lands were parcelled out without reference to any general plan, in consequence of which the titles often conflicted with each other, and in many cases, several grants .covered the same premises. In the year...
Page 92 - Then, find the areas of the triangles separately, and their sum will be the area of the quadrilateral.
Page 39 - The tangent of an arc is the line which touches it at one extremity, and is limited by a line drawn through the other extremity and the centre of the circle. Thus, AC is the tangent of the arc AB.
Page 24 - B + 0, the product would be indicated thus; (A+D)x(A-B+C), whatever is enclosed within the curved lines, being considered as a single quantity. The same thing may also be indicated by a bar : thus, A+B+OXD, denotes that the sum of A, B and C, is to be multiplied by D.
Page 19 - The minutes in the left.hand column of each page, increasing downwards, belong to the degrees at the top ; and those increasing upwards, in the right.hand column, belong to the degrees below.