Parliamentary Papers, Volume 22

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Page 78 - Smith has proved by direct experiment that decomposing organic matter passed through a filtering-bed is changed into nitric acid. 'A jar, open at both ends, such as is used with an air-pump, was filled with sand, and some putrid yeast, which contained no nitric acid, was mixed with pure water, and poured on the sand, and allowed to filter through. The production of nitric acid was abundant.
Page 65 - Hard water, drawn fresh from the well, will assuredly make the coat of a horse unaccustomed to it stare, and it will not unfrequently gripe and otherwise injure him. Instinct or experience has made even the horse himself conscious of this, for he will never drink hard water if he has access to soft ; he will leave the most transparent and pure water of the well for a river, although the water may be turbid, and even for the muddiest pool.
Page 71 - If air be passed through water a certain amount of this material is obtained, but I have found it difficult to pass a sufficient quantity through. If it is made to pass rapidly, absorption does not take place, and evaporation of the water is the consequence if it passes slowly, it requires several weeks to pass a hundred cubic feet through a small quantity of water.
Page 137 - The unneutralised portion consists entirely of bicarbonates, those of lime and magnesia, which are the earthy bicarbonates, and in some waters those of potash and soda, which are the alkaline bicarbonates. The neutral portion consists of the neutral salts of earths and alkalies — such as gypsum and common salt. Salts of iron occur also occasionally in waters that are in use. Such salts impart an inky taste to the water, and they give a yellowish tint to linen that is washed by the water containing...
Page 155 - I think that this process of filtration is efficacious in removing mechanical impurities to an extent that could scarcely be believed without seeing the process. What dirty water is thus filtered and used in some of the first manufactories of calico-printers, where one would think good water was at least very desirable, would not have been believed by me to be possible if observation had not made me familiar with the fact. Cleaning the filter is a matter of very small expense in a large manufactory,...
Page 76 - But the most curious point is the fact that organic matter is never absent, although the rain be continued for whole days. The state of the air is closely connected with that of the water ; what the air contains the water may absorb, what the water has dissolved or absorbed it may give out to the air. The enormous quantity of impure matter filtering from all parts of a large town into its many natural and artificial outlets- does at first view present us with a terrible picture of our underground...
Page 168 - The establishing of a joint stock company for the supply of a town with water, is the establishing of a monopoly of trading persons, having the power, without responsibility, of taxing the inhabitants for their own benefit. The practical check on any crying excess in their charge, and on their heedlessness about supplying water of a proper quality, lies mainly in the apprehension of a second company being established ; but since no new works can be...
Page 185 - ... defaults or annoyances be, as well within the liberties as without (by whom the truth may the rather be known), through whose default the said hurts and damages have happened, and who hath or holdeth any lands...
Page 145 - ... at once forms the bulk of the chemical impurity that the process will separate from water, and is the material whence the ingredient for effecting the separation will be obtained. In water, chalk is almost or altogether insoluble, but it may be rendered soluble by either of two processes of an opposite kind.
Page 49 - Newington, for the deposit of solid matters." " Such are the objections to all open water conduits conducted in earthen channels, — the deficiencies of which will, however, be still better appreciated by a contrast with the qualifications that may be obtained for the same water, if conveyed in covered channels constructed of stone or brickwork, and conducted in straight lines with an uniform and efficient descent, crossing valleys on embankments or arcades, and piercing hills, by tunnels or adits...

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