ing the same wertex with the cone*, the pyramid in- Boox XII. scribed in the cone is half of the pyramid circumscribed about it, because they are to one another as their bases a: * 6. 12. But the cone is less than the circumscribed pyramid: therefore the pyramid of which the base is the square EFGH, and its vertex the same with that of the cone, is greater than half of the cone: Divide the circumferences EF, FG, GH, HE, each into two equal parts in the points O, P, R, S, and join EO, OF, FP, PG, GR, RH, HS, SE: Therefore each of the triangles EOF, FPG, GRH, HSE, is greater than half of the segment of the circle in which it is: Upon each of these triangles erect a pyramid having the same vertex with the cone; each of these pyramids is greater than the half of the segment of the cone in which it is: And thus dividing each of these circumferences into two equal parts, and from the points of division drawing straight lines to the extremities of the circumference, and upon each of the triangles thus made erecting pyramids having the same vertex with the cone, and so on, there must at length remain some segments of the cone which are together less than the solid Z: Let these be the seg-Lein. 1. Vertex is put in place of altitude, which is in the Greek, because the pyramid, in what follows, is supposed to be circumscribed about the cone, and so must have the same vertex. And the same change is made in some places following. BOOK XII. ments upon EO, OF, FP, PG, GR, RH, HS, SE: Therefore the remainder of the cone, viz. the pyramid of which the base is the polygon EOFPGRHS, and its vertex the same with that of the cone, is greater than the solid X: In the circle ABCD describe the polygon ATBYCVDQ similar to the polygon EOFPGRHS, and upon it erect a pyramid having the same vertex with the cone AL: And 1. 12. because as the square of AC is to the square of EG, so is the polygon ATBYCVDQ to the polygon EOFPGRHS: 2. 12. and as the square of AC to the square of EG, so is the circle ABCD to the circle EFGH; therefore the circle 11. 5. ABCD is to the circle EFGH, as the polygon ATBYCVDQ to the polygon EOFPGRHS: But as the circle ABCD to the circle EFGH, so is the cone AL to the solid X: and as the polygon ATBYCVDQ to the polygon EOFPGRHS, 6. 12. so isd the pyramid of which the base is the first of these polygons, and vertex L, to the pyramid of which the base is the other polygon, and its vertex N: Therefore, as the cone AL to the solid X, so is the pyramid of which the base is the polygon ATBYCVDQ, and vertex L, to the pyramid the base of which is the polygon EOFPGRHS, and vertex N: But the cone AL is greater than the pyramid contain14. 5. ed in it; therefore the solid X is greater than the pyra mid in the cone EN. But it is less, as was shown, which 14.5 is absurd: Therefore the circle ABCD is not to the circle Book XII. EFGH, as the cone AL to any solid which is less than the cone EN. In the same manner it may be demonstrated, that the circle EFGH is not to the circle ABCD, as the cone EN to any solid less than the cone AL. Nor can the circle ABCD be to the circle EFGH, as the cone AL to any solid greater than the cone EN: For, if it be possible, let it be so to the solid I, which is greater than the cone EN: Therefore, by inversion, as the circle EFGH to the circle ABCD, so is the solid I to the cone AL: But as the solid I to the cone AL, so is the cone EN to some solid, which must be less than the cone AL, because the solid I is greater than the cone EN: Therefore, as the circle EFGH is to the circle ABCD, so is the cone EN to a solid less than the cone AL, which was shown to be impossible: Therefore the circle ABCD is not to the circle EFGH, as the cone AL is to any solid greater than the cone EN: And it has been demonstrated, that neither is the circle ABCD to the circle EFGH, as the cone AL to any solid less than the cone EN: Therefore the circle ABCD is to the circle EFGH, as the cone AL to the cone EN: But as the cone is to the cone, sob is the cylinder to the cylin- ↳ 15.5. der, because the cylinders are triple of the cone, each to 10. 12. each. Therefore as the circle ABCD to the circle EFGH, so are the cylinders upon them of the same altitude. Wherefore cones and cylinders of the same altitude are to one another as their bases. Q, E. D. PROP. XII. THEOR. SIMILAR Cones and cylinders have to one another See N. the triplicate ratio of that which the diameters of their bases have. Let the cones and cylinders of which the bases are the circles ABCD, EFGH, and the diameters of the bases AC, EG, and KL, MN, the axes of the cones or cylinders, be similar: The cone of which the base is the circle ABCD, and vertex the point L, has to the one of which the base is the circle EFGH, and vertex N, the triplicate ratio of that which AC has to EG. For if the cone ABCDL has not to the cone EFGHN the triplicate ratio of that which AC has to EG, the cone ABCDL shall have the triplicate of that ratio to some solid which is less or greater than the cone EFGHN. First, pro BOOK XII. let it have it to a less, viz. to the solid X. Make the same construction as in the preceding proposition, and it may be demonstrated the very same way as in that position, that the pyramid of which the base is the polygon EOFPGRHS, and vertex N, is greater than the solid X. Describe also in the circle ABCD the polygon ATBYCV DQ similar to the polygon EOFPGRHS, upon which erect a pyramid having the same vertex with the cone; and let LAQ be one of the triangles containing the pyramid upon the polygon ATBYCVDQ, the vertex of which is L; and let NES be one of the triangles containing the pyramid upon the polygon EOFPGRHS of which the ver tex is N; and join KQ, MS: Because then the cone 24 Def. 11. ABCDL is similar to the cone EFGHN, AC is a to EG as b 15.5. the axis KL to the axis MN; and as AC to EG, sob is AK to EM; therefore as AK to EM, so is KL to MN; and alternately, AK to KL, as EM to MN: And the right angles AKL, EMN, are equal: therefore the sides about these equal angles being proportionals, the triangle 6. 6 AKL is similar to the triangle EMN. Again, because AK is to KQ, as EM to MS, and that these sides are a about equal angles AKQ, EMS, because these angles are, Book XII. each of them, the same part of four right angles at the centres K, M; therefore the triangle AKQ is similara to the triangle EMS: And because it has been shown * 6. 6. that as AK to KL, so is EM to MN, and that AK is equal to KQ, and EM to MS; as QK to KL, so is SM to MN: and therefore the sides about the right angles QKL, SMN, being proportionals, the triangle LKQ is similar to the triangle NMS: and because of the similarity of the triangles AKL, EMN, as LA is to AK, so is NE to EM: and by the similarity of the triangles AKQ, EMS, as KA to AQ, so ME to ES; ex æqualib, LA is to AQ, as NE to ES. 22. 5. Again, because of the similarity of the triangles LQK, NSM, as LQ to QK, so NS to SM; and from the similarity of the triangles KAQ, MES, as KQ to QA, so MS to SE: ex æquali, LQ is to QA, as NS to SE: And it was proved that QA is to AL, as SE to EN: therefore, again, ex æquali, as QL to LA, so is SN to NE: Wherefore the triangles LQA, NSE, having the sides about all their angles proportionals, are equiangular and similar to one an- < 5. 6. other: And therefore the pyramid of which the base is the triangle AKQ, and vertex L, is similar to the pyramid the base of which is the triangle EMS, and vertex N, because their solid angles are equal to one another, and they are a B. 11. contained by the same number of similar planes: But similar pyramids which have triangular bases have to one another the triplicate ratio of that which their homolo- • 8. 12. gous sides have; therefore the pyramid AKQL has to the pyramid EMSN the triplicate ratio of that which AK has to EM. In the same manner, if straight lines be drawn from the points D, V, C, Y, B, T, to K, and from the points, H, R, G, P, F, O, to M, and pyramids be erected upon the triangles having the same vertices with the cones, it may be demonstrated that each pyramid in the first cone has to each in the other, taking them in the same order, the triplicate ratio of that which the side AK has to the side EM; that is, which AC has to EG: But as one antecedent to its consequent, so are all the antecedents to all the consequents; therefore as the pyramid AKQL to the py-12. 5. ramid EMSN, so is the whole pyramid the base of which is the polygon DQATBYCV, and vertex L, to the whole pyramid of which the base is the polygon HSEOFPGR, and vertex N. Wherefore also the first of these two last-named pyramids has to the other the triplicate ratio of that which AC has to EG. But, by the hypothesis, the cone of |