EXAMPLES. 1. How many rods of standard brickwork are contained in a wall whose length or compass is 57 ft 3 in, and height 24 ft 6 in; the wall being 24 bricks thick? Ans. 8 rods, 17 yards. 2. Required the content of a wall 62 ft 6 in long, 14 ft 8 in high, and Ans. 169-753 yards. 2 bricks thick? 3. A triangular gable is raised 17 ft high, on an end-wall whose length is 24 ft 9 in, the thickness being 2 bricks: required the content. Ans. 32-08 yards. 4. The end-wall of a house is 28 ft 10 in long, and 55 ft 8 in high, to the eaves; 20 ft high is 24 bricks thick, other 20 ft high is 2 bricks thick, and the remaining 15 ft 8 in, is 11⁄2 brick thick; above which is a triangular gable, of 1 brick thick, which rises 42 courses of bricks: what is the content in standard measure? Ans. 253-626 yards. 5. Required the number of bricks necessary to build a wall of 21⁄2 bricks thick, the superficial area being 2346 feet. only the vacuity from the earth to the mantle. All windows, doors, etc. are to be deducted from the contents of the walls in which they are placed. The dimensions of a common bare brick are, 8 inches long, 4 broad, and 2) thick; but, on account of the half-inch joint of mortar, when laid in brickwork, every dimension is to be counted half an inch more; thus making its length 9, its breadth 41, and thickness 3 inches. Hence, every 4 courses of brickwork measure Ift in height. 450 stock bricks weigh about a ton, and 2 hods of mortar make nearly a bushel. The standard rod requires 4500 bricks of the usual size, including waste. 1 rod of brickwork requires 27 bushels of chalk lime, and 3 loads of road drift or sand. Taking 4500 for the bricks employed, including waste, in a standard rod of 272 feet face, and 11 brick thick; the following table will serve to determine the number of bricks required in any proposed case. Area of the face Number of bricks required for 1, 2, 3, 4, ... feet at the respective thicknesses. The left-hand column exhibiting the area of the face of a wall in feet, the numbers of bricks required for 1 brick thick, 11 brick thick, etc. are shown in the corresponding horizontal column under the appropriate heading. For greater numbers, being 10 times, 100 times, 1000 times, etc. the number of square feet specified in any part of the left-hand column, take 10 times, 100 times, 1000 times, etc. the number given under the proper head. Thus, 5 sq. ft of 2 bricks thick will require 110-294 bricks; 50, 1102-940; 500, 11029-400; and so on. For much valuable and really practical information, on artificer's work, the reader may refer to Maynard's edition of Hutton's Mensuration. For 2000 take 1000 times the number for 2 55147.07 To masonry belong all sorts of stone-work; and the measure made use of is a foot, either superficial or solid *. EXAMPLES. 1. Required the content of a wall, 53 ft 6 in long, 12 ft 3 in high, and 2 ft thick. Ans. 1310 ft. 2. What is the content of a wall, the length being 24 ft 3 in, height 10 ft 9 in, and 2 ft thick? Ans. 521-375 ft. 3. Required the value of a marble slab, at 8s per ft; the length being 5 ft 7 in, Ans. 41 1s 10d. and breadth 1 ft 10 in. 4. In a chimney-piece, suppose the length of the mantle and slab, each 4 ft 6 in, the breadth of both together 3 ft 2 in, the length of each jamb 4 ft 4 in, and the breadth of both together 1 ft 9 in. Required the superficial content? Ans. 21 ft 10 in. III. CARPENTERS' AND JOINERS' WORK. To this branch belongs all the wood-work of a house, such as flooring, partitioning, roofing, etc. †. * Walls, columns, blocks of stone or marble, etc. are measured by the cubic foot; and pavements, slabs, chimney-pieces, etc. by the superficial or square foot. Cubic or solid measure is used for the materials, and square measure for the workmanship. In the solid measure, the true length, breadth, and thickness are measured, and multiplied together. In the superficial, the length and breadth are taken of every part of the projection which is seen without the general upright face of the building. A ton of Portland stone is about 16 cubic feet; of Bath stone, 17; of granite, 131; of marble, at a medium, 13 cubic feet. + Large and plain articles are usually measured by the square foot or yard, etc.; but enriched mouldings, and some other articles, are often estimated by running or lineal measure; and some things are rated by the piece. In measuring of joists, take the dimensions of one joist, considering that each end is let into the wall about 3 of the thickness, and multiply its content by the number of them. Partitions are measured from wall to wall for one dimension, and from floor to floor, as far as they extend, for the other. The measure of centering for cellars is found by making a string pass over the surface of the arch for the breadth, and taking the length of the cellar for the length: but in groin centering, it is usual to allow double measure, on account of their greater trouble. In EXAMPLES. 1. Required the content of a floor, 48ft 6in long, and 24ft 3in broad? Ans. 11 sq. 76 ft. 2. A floor being 36ft 3in long, and 16ft 6in broad, how many squares are in it? Ans. 5sq 98 ft. 3. How many squares of partitioning are there in 173ft 10in in length, and 10ft 7in in height? Ans. 18-3973 sq. 4. What was the cost of roofing a house at 10s 6d a square; the length within the walls being 52ft 8in, and the breadth 30ft 6in; reckoning the roof of the flat? Ans. 121 12s 11 d. 5. Required the cost, at 6s per square yard, of the wainscoting of a room; the height, including the cornice and mouldings, being 12ft 6in, and the whole compass 83ft 8in; also the three window-shutters being each 7ft 8in by 3ft 6in, and the door 7ft by 3ft 6in, which being worked on both sides must be reckoned work and half work. Ans. 361 12s 2d. IV. SLATERS' AND TILERS' WORK. In this work, the content of a roof is found by multiplying the length of the ridge by the girt from eaves to eaves; making allowance in this girt for the double row of slates at the bottom, or for how much one row of slates or tiles is laid over another*. In roofing, the dimensions, as to length, breadth, and depth, are taken as in flooring joists, and the contents computed the same way. In floor-boarding, multiply the length by the breadth of the room. For stair-cases, take the breadth of all the steps, by making a line ply close over them, from the top to the bottom; and multiply the length of this line by the length of a step, for the whole area. By the length of a step is meant the length of the front and the returns at the two ends; and by the breadth is to be understood the girts of its two outer surfaces, or the tread and riser. For the balustrade, take the whole length of the upper part of the hand-rail, and girt over its end till it meet the top of the newel-post, for the one dimension; and twice the length of the baluster on the landing, with the girt of the hand-rail, for the other dimension. For wainscoting, take the compass of the room for the one dimension; and the height from the floor to the ceiling; making the string ply close into all the mouldings, for the other. For doors, multiply the height into the breadth, for the area. If the door be panneled on both sides, take double its measure for the workmanship; but if one side only be panneled, take the area and its half for the workmanship. For the surrounding architrave, girt it about the uppermost part for its length; and measure over it, as far as it can be seen when the door is open, for the breadth. Window-shutters, bases, etc. are measured in like manner. In measuring of joiners' work, the string is made to ply close into all mouldings, and to every part of the work over which it passes. Note. 64 cubic feet of fir, 60 of elm, 45 of ash, 39 of oak, make each a ton, at a medium. Battens are 7 inches, deals 9, and planks 11 inches wide. * When the roof is of a true pitch, that is, forming a right angle at the top; then the breadth of the building, with its half added, is the girt over both sides nearly. In angles formed in a roof, running from the ridge to the eaves, when the angle bends inwards, it is called a valley; but when outwards, it is called a hip. Deductions are made for chimney-shafts or window-holes. 6 inch gage, 1 square requires 760 plain tiles EXAMPLES. 1. Required the content of a slated roof, the length being 45ft gin, and the whole girt 34ft 3in. Ans. 174yds. 2. To how much amounts the tiling of a house, at 25s 6d per square; the length being 43ft 10in, and the breadth on the flat 27ft 5in; also the eaves projecting 16in on each side, and the roof of true pitch? Ans. 241 9s 84d. V. PLASTERERS' WORK. PLASTERERS' work is of two kinds, which are measured separately; namely, ceiling, which is plastering on laths; and rendering, which is plastering on walls *. EXAMPLES. 1. Find the content of a ceiling which is 43ft 3in long, and 25ft 6in broad. Ans. 122 yds. 2. Required the cost of the ceiling of a room at 10d per yd; the length being Ans. 11 9s 8 d. 21ft 8in, and the breadth 14ft 10in. 3. The length of a room is 18ft 6in, the breadth 12ft 3in, and height 10ft 6in; what is the amount of ceiling and rendering, the former at 8d and the latter at 3d per yd: allowing for the door of 7ft by 3ft 8in, and a fire-place of 5ft square? Ans. 11 13s 3d. 4. Required the quantity of plastering in a room, the length being 14ft 5in, breadth 13ft 2in, and height 9ft 3in to the under side of the cornice, which girts 8in, and projects 5in from the wall on the upper part next the ceiling; deducting only for a door 7ft by 4. Ans. 53yds 5ft 31⁄2in of rendering, 18yds 5ft 6in of ceiling, and 39ft Offin of cornice. VI. PAINTERS' WORK. PAINTERS' work is computed in square yards. Every part is measured where the colour lies; and the measuring line is forced into all the mouldings and corners. Windows are painted at so much a piece: and it is usual to allow double measure for carved mouldings and other ornamental works. Five hundred feet in length of laths make a bundle; and is the quantity usually allowed to a square of tiling. A square of Westmoreland slates will weigh half a ton; of Welsh rag from of a ton to a ton; and a square of pantiling weighs about 7 cwt. * The contents are estimated either by the foot or the yard, or the square of 100 feet. Enriched mouldings, etc. are rated by running or lineal measure. Deductions are made for chimneys, doors, windows, and other apertures. 3 cwts. of lime, 4 loads of sand, and 10 bushels of hair, are allowed to 200 yards of rendering. 1 bundle of laths, and 500 of nails, are allowed to cover 41 square yards. 1 barrel of cement is 5 bushels, and weighs 3 cwt. 1 rod of brickwork in cement requires 36 bushels of cement and 36 bushels of sand. EXAMPLES. 1. How many yards of painting are there in a room which is 65ft 6in in com pass, and 12ft 4in high? Ans. 89 yds. 2. The length of a room being 20ft, its breadth 14ft 6in, and height 10ft 4in: how many yards of painting are there, deducting a fire-place of 4ft by 4ft 4in, and two windows, each 6ft by 3ft 2in? Ans. 73 yds. 3. Required the cost of painting a room of the following dimensions at 6d a yd: viz. the length 24ft 6in, the breadth 16ft 3in, and the height 12ft 9in; the door 7ft by 3ft 6in, and the fire-place 5ft by 5ft 6in; also the shutters to the two windows each 7ft 9in by 3ft 6in, the breaks of the windows 8ft 6in high by 1ft 3in deep, and the window-cills and soffits determinable from the dimensions already given. Ans. 31 3s 10 d. VII. GLAZIERS' WORK. GLAZIERS take their dimensions, either in feet, inches, and parts, or feet, tenths, and hundredths; and they compute their work in square feet *. EXAMPLES. 1. How many square feet are there in the window which is 4.25ft long, and 2.75ft broad? Ans. 113ft. 2. What will the glazing a triangular sky-light cost at 10d per foot; the base Ans. 11 15s 1 d. being 12ft 6in, and the height 6ft 9in? 3. There is a house with three tiers of windows, three windows in each tier, their common breadth 3ft 1lin: and their height are 7ft 10in, 6ft 8in, and 5ft 4in respectively. Required the expense of glazing at 14d per foot. Ans. 131 11s 10d. 4. Required the expense of glazing the windows of a house at 13d a foot; there being three stories, and three windows in each story; the heights of which are respectively 7ft 9in, 6ft 6in, and 5ft 34in, and of an oval window over the door 1ft 10 in: also the common breadth of all the windows 3ft 9in. Ans. 121 5s 6d. VIII. PAVERS' WORK. PAVERS' work is done by the square yard: and the content is found by multiplying the length by the breadth. EXAMPLES. 1. What cost the paving a foot-path, at 3s 4d a yard; the length being 35ft 4in, and breadth 8ft 3in? Ans. 51 7s 11 d. * In taking the length and breadth of a window, the cross bars between the squares are included. Windows also of round or oval forms are measured as square, measuring them to their greatest length and breadth, on account of the waste in cutting the glass. |