# Arithmetic, algebra, logarithms, geometry and trigonometry, elementary mechanics, hydraulics, pneumatics, elementary graphical statics

International Textbook Company, 1899 - Civil engineering
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### Contents

 PAGE Definitions 1 Addition 4 Subtraction 9 Multiplication 11 Division 16 Cancelation 19 Fractions 23 Decimals 37
 Reading Algebraic Expressions 114 Positive and Negative Quantities 116 Addition 120 Subtraction 123 Symbols of Aggregation 126 Multiplication 128 Division 135 Factoring 138

 Percentage 51 Denominate Numbers 57 Measures 58 Involution 73 Evolution 75 Ratio 917 91 Proportion 96 Notation 111
 Least Common Multiple 148 Fractions 151 Involution 164 ALGEBRA Continued PAGE 166 HYDRAULICSContinued PAGE 425 PNEUMATICS 437 ELEMENTARY GRAPHICAL STATICS 483 Copyright

### Popular passages

Page 304 - Every body continues in a state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line, unless it is compelled to change that state by a force impressed upon it.
Page 207 - Find the value of one of the unknown quantities, in terms of the other and known quantities...
Page 296 - A sphere is a solid bounded by a curved surface, every point of which is equally distant from a point within called the center.
Page 248 - A circle is a plane figure bounded by a curved line, called the circumference, every point of which is equally distant from a point within called the center.
Page 529 - Consider, for instance, joint 6, the polygon for which is a gij a. Notice that the corresponding letters AGIJA, on the truss, follow one another around the joint in such a manner that in passing from one to another we move in a direction opposite to that in which the hands of a clock move, and by naming them all we go around an entire circle in the same direction, passing from A to G, from G to /, from / to J, etc. This gives the directions of the corresponding lines in the diagram for the given...
Page 77 - In order to find the square root of a number, the first step is to find how many figures there will be in the root. This is done by pointing off the number into periods of two figures each, beginning at the rig/it.
Page 93 - The terms of a ratio are the two numbers to be compared ; thus, in the above ratio, 20 and 4 are the terms. When both terms are considered together, they are called a couplet ; when considered separately, the first term is called the antecedent, and the second term the consequent. Thus, in the ratio 20 : 4, 20 and 4 form a couplet, and 20 is the antecedent, and 4 the consequent.
Page 97 - The first and fourth terms of a proportion are called the extremes; and the second and third terms the means. Thus, in the proportion a : b = с : d, a and d are the extremes, and b and с the means.
Page 378 - ... the ratio of the ovendry weight of a sample to the weight of a volume of water equal to the volume of the sample at some specific moisture content, as green, air-dry, or ovendry.
Page 11 - The number thus added to itself, or the number to be multiplied, is called the multiplicand. The number which shows how many times the multiplicand is to be taken, or the number by which we multiply, is called the multiplier.