sinks so deep as to displace 50000 cubic feet of fresh water; what is the whole weight of the vessel ? Ans. 1395 tons. QUEST. 63. It is required to determine what would be the height of the atmosphere, if it were every where of the same density as at the surface of the earth, when the quicksilver in the barometer stands at 30 inches; and also, what would be the height of a water barometer at the same time? Ans. height of the air 291663 feet, or 5.5240 miles, height of water 35 feet. QUEST. 64. With what velocity would each of those three fluids, viz. quicksilver, water, and air, issue through a small orifice in the bottom of vessels, of the respective heights of 30 inches, 35 feet, and 5.5240 miles, estimating the pressure by the whole altitudes, and the air rushing into a vacuum? Ans. the veloc. of quicksilver 12.681 feet. 47.447 QUEST. 65. A very large vessel of 10 feet high (no matter what shape) being kept constantly full of water, by a large supplying cock at the top; if 9 small circular holes, each of an inch diameter, be opened in its perpendicular side at every foot of the depth; it is required to determine the several distances to which they will spout on the horizontal plane of the base, and the quantity of water discharged by all of them in 10 minutes? ✓ 36 6.00000 and the quantity discharged in 10 min, 123.8849 gallons. Note. In this solution, the velocity of the water is supposed to be equal to that which is acquired by a heavy body in falling through the whole height of the water above the orifice, and that it is the same in every part of the holes, QUEST. QUEST. 66. If the inner axis of a hollow globe of copper, exhausted of air, be 100 feet; what thickness must it be of, that it may just float in the air? Ans. '02688 of an inch thick. QUEST. 67. If a spherical balloon of copper, of of an inch thick, have its cavity of 100 feet diameter, and be filled with inflammable air, of of the gravity of common air, what weight will just balance it, and prevent it from rising up into the atmosphere? Ans. 21273lb. QUEST. 68. If a glass tube, 36 inches long, close at top, be sunk perpendicularly into water, till its lower or open end be 30 inches below the surface of the water; how high will the water rise within the tube, the quicksilver in the common barometer at the same time standing at 294 inches? Ans. 2.26545 inches. QUEST. 69. If a diving bell, of the form of a parabolfe conoid, be let down into the sea to the several depths of 5, 10, 15, and 20 fathoms; it is required to assign the respective heights to which the water will rise within it: its axis and the diameter of its base being each 8 feet, and the quicksilver in the barometer standing at 30.9 inches? Ans. at 5 fathoms deep the water rises 2·03546 feet. sinks so deep as to displace 50000 cubic water; what is the whole weight of the ves T QUEST. 63. It is required to deter FLUXIONS. height of the atmosphere, if it same density as at the surface of silver in the barometer stand, would be the height of a wa Ans. height of th height of AND PRINCIPLES. of Fluxions, magnitudes or quanQUEST. 64. With considered, not as made up of a number three fluids, viz. c generated by continued motion, by a small orifice in they increase or decrease. As, a line by heights of 30 i point; a surface by the motion of a line; motion of a surface. So likewise, time the pressure into a vacu as represented by a line, increasing unithe motion of a point. And quantities of all which are capable of increase and decrease, ter onceived to be generated by motion. hke manner be represented by geometrical magni Any quantity thus generated, and variable, is called a Fluent, or a Flowing Quantity. And the rate or proportion according to which any flowing quantity increases, at any position position or instant, is the Fluxion of the said quantity, at that or instant; and it is proportional to the magnitude which the flowing quantity would be uniformly increased in a given time, with the generating celerity uniformly continued during that time. by 3. The small quantities that are actually generated, produced, or described, in any small given time, and by any continued motion, either uniform or variable, are called In crements. 4. Hence, if the motion of increase be uniform, by which increments are generated, the increments will in that case be proportional, or equal, to the measures of the fluxions: but if the motion of increase be accelerated, the increment so generated, in a given finite time, will exceed the fluxion: and if it be a decreasing motion, the increment, so generated, will be less than the fluxion. But if the time be indefinitely small, so that the motion be considered as uniform for that instant; then these nascent increments will always be proportional, or equal, to the fluxions, and may be substituted instead of them, in any calculation, PHILOSTE illustrate these definitions: Sup- m A P P to be such, as would, if from thence it le or continue uniform, be sufficient to cause to describe, or pass uniformly over, the distance e given time allowed for the fluxion: then will the ne Pp represent the fluxion of the fluent, or flowing , AP, at that position. 6. Again, suppose the right line mn to move, from the position AB, continually parallel to itself, with any continued motion, so as to generate the fluent or flowing rectangle ABQP, while the A m Q 9 C P P point m describes the line AP: also, let the distance pp be taken, as before, to express the fluxion of the line or base AP; and complete the rectangle Poqp. Then, like as Pp is the fluxion of the line AP, so is Pq the fluxion of the flowing parallelogram AQ; both these fluxions, or increments, being uniformly described in the same time. 7. In like manner, if the solid AERP be conceived to be generated by the plane PQR, moving from the position ABE, always parallel to itself, along the line AD; and if Pp denote the fluxion of the line AP: Then, like as the rectangle Pop, or PQ × Pp, de C B notes the fluxion of the flowing rectangle ABQP, so also shall the fluxion of the variable solid, or prism ABERQP, be denoted by the prism PQRrqp, or the plane PR × Pp. And, in both these last two cases, it appears that the fluxion of the generated rectangle, or prism, is equal to the product of the generating line, or plane, drawn into the fluxion of the line along which it moves. 8. Hitherto the generating line, or plane, has been considered as of a constant and invariable magnitude; in which case the fluent, or quantity generated, is a rectangle, or a prism, the former being described by the motion of a line, and the latter by the motion of a plane. So, in like manner are other figures, whether plane or solid, conceived to be described THE DOCTRINE OF FLUXIONS. DEFINITIONS AND PRINCIPLES. Art. 1. IN the Doctrine of Fluxions, magnitudes or quantities of all kinds are considered, not as made up of a number of small parts, but as generated by continued motion, by means of which they increase or decrease. As, a line by the motion of a point; a surface by the motion of a line; and a solid by the motion of a surface. So likewise, time may be considered as represented by a line, increasing uniformly by the motion of a point. And quantities of all kinds whatever, which are capable of increase and decrease, may in like manner be represented by geometrical magnitudes, conceived to be generated by motion. 2. Any quantity thus generated, and variable, is called a Fluent, or a Flowing Quantity. And the rate or proportion according to which any flowing quantity increases, at any position or instant, is the Fluxion of the said quantity, at that position or instant; and it is proportional to the magnitude by which the flowing quantity would be uniformly increased in a given time, with the generating celerity uniformly continued during that time. 3. The small quantities that are actually generated, produced, or described, in any small given time, and by any continued motion, either uniform or variable, are called In crements. |