the centre falls without the triangle, beyond the side opposite to the obtuse angle. PROPOSITION VI. PROB. To inscribe a square in a given circle. Let ABCD be the given circle; it is required to inscribe a square in ABCD. 11. 1. Draw the diameters AC, BD + at right angles to one another, 1. 3. & and join AB, BC, CD, DA: the figure ABCD shall be the square required. Because BE is equal to ED, for E is the centre, and that EA is common, and at right angles to BD, the base BA is equal to the B E 4. 1. lateral. It is also rectangular; for the straight line BD being the diameter of the circle ABCD, BAD is a semicircle; wherefore the angle BAD is a right angle: for the same reason, each of the angles ABC, BCD, CDA is a right angle; therefore the quadrilateral figure ABCD is rectangular: and 31. 3. it has been shewn to be equilateral; therefore it is a † square; † 30 Def. 1. and it is inscribed in the circle ABCD. Which was to be done. PROPOSITION VII. PROB. To describe a square about a given circle. Let ABCD be the given circle; it is required to describe a square about it. Draw two diameters AC, BD of the circle ABCD, at right angles to one another; and through the points A, B, C, D, draw* FG, GH, HIK, KF touching the circle: the figure *17.3. GHKF shall be the square required. * F E D 18. 3. Because FG touches the circle ABCD, and G EA is drawn from the centre E, to the point of contact A, the angles at A are right angles; B for the same reason, the angles at the points B, C, D are right angles: and because the angle AEB is a right angle, as likewise is EBG, GH is parallel to AC; for the same reason AC is parallel to FK and in like manner GF, HK may each of them H 28.1. 34. 1. be demonstrated to be parallel to BED; therefore the figures GK, GC, AK, FB, BK are parallelograms; and therefore GF is equal * to HK, and GH to FK: and because AC is equal to BD, and that AC is equal to each of the two GH, FK; and BD to each of the two GF, HK; GH, FK are each of them equal to GF, or HK; therefore the quadrilateral figure FGHK is equilateral. It is also rectangular; for GBEA being a parallelogram, and AEB a right angle, AGB* is likewise a right angle and in the same manner it may be shewn, that the angles at H, K, F, are right angles; therefore the quadrilateral figure FGHK is rectangular and it is demonstrated † 30 Def. 1. to be equilateral; therefore it is at square; and it is described about the circle ABCD. Which was to be done. * 34. 1. 10. 1. † 31.1. 34. 1. † 30 Def. 1. † 7 Ax. • 29. 1. † 29. 1. PROPOSITION VIII. PROB.-To inscribe a circle in a given square. Let ABCD be the given square; it is required to inscribe a circle in ABCD. * Α E D Bisect each of the sides AB, AD in the points F, E; and through E, draw + EH parallel to AB or DC; and through F, draw FK parallel to AD or BC: therefore each of the figures AK, KB, AH, HD, AG, GC, BG, GD is a parallelogram; and their opposite sides are equal: and because AD is equal to AB, and that AE is the half of AD, and AF the half of AB, AE is equal to AF; wherefore the sides opposite to these are equal, viz. FG to GE: in the same manner it may be demonstrated, that GH, GK are each of them equal to FG or GE; therefore the four straight lines GE, GF, GH, GK are equal to one another; and the circle described from the centre G, at the distance of one of them, will pass through the extremities of the other three, and touch the straight lines AB, BC, CD, DA; because the angles at the points ‡ E, F, H, K, are right* angles, and that the straight line which is drawn from the F B H K Because AB is parallel to EH, the two angles BAE, AEH are together equal to two right angles: bnt BAE is a right angle; therefore AEH is +30 Def. 1. a right angle: and in the same manner the angles at the points F, H, K, may be proved to be right angles. extremity of a diameter, at right angles to it, touches the Cor. 16.3. circle therefore each of the straight lines AB, BC, CD, da touches the circle, which therefore is inscribed in the square ABCD. Which was to be done. PROPOSITION IX. PROB.-To describe a circle about a given square. Let ABCD be the given square; it is required to describe a circle about ABCD. Join AC, BD, cutting one another in E: and because DA A B 8. 1. to the † 30 Def. 1. is equal to AB, and AC common to the triangles DAC, BAC, † 30 Def. 1. the two sides DA, AC are equal to the two BA, AC, each to each; and the base DC is equal to the base BC; wherefore the angle DAC is equal to the angle BAC; and the angle DAB is bisected by the straight line AC: in the same manner it may be demonstrated, that the angles ABC, BCD, CDA are severally bisected by the straight lines BD, AC: therefore, because the angle DAB is equal angle ABC, and that the angle EAB is the half of DAB, and EBA the half of ABC, the angle EAB is equal to the angle EBA; wherefore the side EA is equal to the side EB: in the same manner it may be demonstrated, that the straight lines EC, ED are each of them equal to EA, or EB; therefore the four straight lines EA, EB, EC, ED, are equal to one another; and the circle described from the centre E, at the distance of one of them, will pass through the extremities of the other three, and be described about the square ABCD. Which was to be done. PROPOSITION X. PROB. To describe an isosceles triangle, having each of the angles at the base, double of the third angle. 7 Ax. 6.1. 11. 2. Take any straight line AB, and divide* it in the point C, so that the rectangle AB, BC may be equal to the square of CA; and from the centre A, at the distance AB, describe the circle BDE, in which, place the straight line BD equal to 1. 4. AC, which is not greater than the diameter of the circle BDE; * and join DA: the triangle ABD shall be such as is required; * 5.4. + Constr. † 1 Ax. 37. 3. * 32. 3. +2 Ax. * 32. 1. † 1 Ax. * 5. 1. † 1 Ax. 6. 1. + 1 Ax. * 5. 1. † 32. 1. that is, each of the angles ABD, ADB shall be double of the angle BAD. B E Join DC, and about the triangle ADC describe the circle ACD: and because the rectangle AB, BC is equal to the square of AC †, and that AC is equal to BD, the rectangle AB, BC is equal to the square of BD: and because from the point B, without the circle ACD, two straight lines BCA, BD are drawn to the circumference, one of which cuts, and the other meets the circle, and that the rectangle AB, BC, contained by the whole of the cutting line, and the part of it without the circle, is equal to the square of BD which meets it, the straight line BD touches the circle ACD and because BD touches the circle, and DC is drawn from the point of contact D, the angle BDC is equal* to the angle DAC in the alternate segment of the circle to each of these add the angle CDA; therefore the whole angle BDA is equal † to the two angles CDA, DAC: 'but the exterior angle BCD is equal * to the angles CDA, DAC; therefore also BDA is equal† to BCD: but BDA is equal to the angle CBD, because the side AD is equal to the side AB; therefore CBD, or DBA, is equal + to BCD; and consequently the three angles BDA, DBA, BCD are equal to one another; and because the angle DBC is equal to the angle BCD, the side BD is equal to the side DC: but BD was made equal to CA; therefore also CA is equal † to CD, and the angle CDA equal * to the angle DAC; therefore the angles CDA, DAC together, are double of the angle DAC: but BCD is equal † to the angles CDA, DAC; therefore also BCD is double of DAC: and BCD was proved to be equal to each of the angles BDA, DBA; therefore each of the angles BDA, DBA is double of the angle DAB. Wherefore, an isosceles triangle ABD is described, having each of the angles at the base, double of the third angle. Which was to be done. * PROPOSITION XI. * PROB.- To inscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon in a given circle. Let ABCDE be the given circle; it is required to inscribe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon in the circle ABCDE. * F B E * 2.4.. Describe an isosceles triangle FGH, having each of the * 10. 4. angles at G, H, double of the angle at F; and in the circle ABCDE, inscribe the triangle ACD, equiangular to the triangle FGH, so that the angle CAD may be equal to the angle at F, and each of the angles ACD, CDA equal to the angle at G or H: wherefore each of the angles ACD, CDA is double of the angle CAD. Bisect * the angles ACD, CDA by the straight lines CE, DB; and join AB, BC, DE, EA: ABCDE shall be the pentagon required. G H 9. 1. Because each of the angles ACD, CDA is double of CAD, and that they are bisected by the straight lines CE, DB, therefore the five angles DAC, ACE, ECD, CDB, BDA are equal to one another: but equal angles stand upon equal 26. 3. circumferences; therefore the five circumferences AB, BC, CD, DE, EA are equal to one another: and equal circumferences are subtended by equal straight lines; therefore the 29.3. five straight lines AB, BC, CD, DE, EA are equal to one another wherefore the pentagon ABCDE is equilateral. It is also equiangular; for, because the circumference AB is equal to the circumference DE, if to each be added BCD, the whole ABCD is equal † to the whole EDCB: but the angle AED † 2 Ax. stands on the circumference ABCD, and the angle BAE on the circumference EDCB; therefore the angle BAE is equal ** 27. 3. to the angle AED: for the same reason, each of the angles ABC, BCD, CDE is equal to the angle BAE, or AED; therefore the pentagon ABCDE is equiangular: and it has been shewn, that it is equilateral. Wherefore, in the given circle an equilateral and equiangular pentagon has been inscribed. Which was to be done. 1 PROPOSITION XII. PROB. To describe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon about a given circle. Let ABCDE be the given circle; it is required to describe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon about the circle ABCDE. |