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The four classes of Particles: Adverbs, Interjections, Prepositions, Conjunctions, are closely connected: for Prepositions are Adverbs used with Nouns :en (prep.) + vérité = vraiment. Some words do duty for either :-dessus (prep.) la table; but, Est-il sous la table ?—Non, il est dessus (adv.). Again, there are Adverbs used as Conjunctions:-quand viendrez-vous ? but- Je ne sais pas quand il viendra; and Prepositions compounded with que become Conjunctions :- - Je le fais pour vous-Je vous le dis pour que vous le sachiez; whilst Interjections are Adverbs loosely connected with the sentence.


Adverbs are classified according to meaning into—

(a) Adverbs of Place:Où est-il ?-Il est ici (là). Pronominal:-Il y est. Où vas-tu ?-Je vais là.

Pronominal:-J'y vais.

D'où viens tu ?-Je viens de là.
Pronominal:-J'en viens.

Je viens de chez moi.

Par où iras-tu ?—

J'irai par ici ou par là.

Je le croyais dedans, il est dehors.
Il a mis son domestique dehors.
Votre maison me plaît mieux

en dedans qu'en dehors.

Voyez sur la table, cherchez dessus
et dessous.
Passez par-dessous.

Where is he?—He is here (there).
He is there (i.e. the place mentioned).
Where are you going?—I am going.
there (thither).

Where do you come from?—

I am coming from there (thence).
I am coming from home.
Which way shall you go?—
I shall go this way or that way.

I thought he was in, he is out.
He has turned his servant out of doors.
Your house pleases me better inside
than outside.
Look on the table, search on it and
below it.

Ceux de l'âge de deux ans et au-dessous.
Il y a quelque piège là-dessous.
Il n'est ni dessus ni dessous.

Il a un habit et un manteau par-dessus.
Au-dessus, étaient écrits ces mots :

Pourquoi toujours revenir là-dessus?
Comme nous l'avons dit ci-dessus.

Pass underneath.

Those of two years and under.
There is some snare underneath.
It is neither on it nor below it.
He has a coat and a cloak over it.
Above, the following words were
written :

Why always return to that subject?
As we have mentioned above.


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Combien de laine? how much wool? Combien de verres? how many

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Il a obtenu le premier prix !-Ah, He has won the first prize!—Has he? vraiment ?

(e) Adverbs of Manner, derived regularly from Adjectives :-
Adverbs are formed by-

(1) adding -ment to Adjectives ending in a vowel: as,

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(2) Adding -ment to the feminine form of Adjectives ending in a

consonant: as,

Il a le parler franc, la parole franche. His words are candid (He is plain Il parle très franchement.

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(3) Changing into -mment the

Péril instant.

He speaks candidly.

A fortunate chance.


Fortunately he met his friend.

ending -nt of Adjectives in -ant, or

-ent1 (i.e. assimilating the dentals -nt to the labial m): as,

Prier instamment.

Le renard est prudent.

Il s'y prend prudemment.

Imminent (urgent) peril.

To beseech urgently.

The fox is cautious.

He sets about it cautiously.

Except :-lentement, slowly; présentement, presently; véhémentement, vehemently, which do not change -nt into m.

1 For the historical origin of this formation of Adverbs by means of -ment, see Introd.

ANOMALIES.-1. Aveuglément, blindly; commodément, comfortably; conformément, conformably; énormément, enormously; immensément, immensely; opiniâtrément, obstinately; uniformément, uniformly.

The above Adverbs change the e mute of the Adjective into é.

2. Communément, commonly; confusément, confusedly; expressément, expressly; importunément, importunately; obscurément, obscurely; précisément, precisely; profondément, profoundly; profusément, profusely.

The above change the feminine ending e mute of the Adjective (commune, confuse, etc.) into é.

3. Assidûment, assiduously; crûment, crudely; dûment, duly; gaîment gaily.

The above take a circumflex on the final vowel of the Adjective.

Observation 1.—Adj. gentil, Adv. gentiment;

bref and brief, Adv. brièvement.

2.-vite is both Adj. and Adv. ; vitement is only used in familiar language.

3.-Adjectives used adverbially without changing :

parler bas, haut.

tenir bon; sentir bon, mauvais.

voir (parler) clair.

acheter (vendre, coûter) cher.

couper court, demeurer court.
marcher droit; se tenir droit.
faire (venir, etc.) exprès.
chanter faux, juste.
tenir ferme; frapper ferme.
deviner (frapper) juste.
raisonner (viser) juste.

to speak low, aloud.

to hold out; to smell, nice, bad.
to see clearly; to speak plainly.
to buy (sell) dear; to cost a great

to cut short; to stick fast.
to go ahead; to stand straight.
to do (to come, etc.) on purpose.
to sing out of tune; in tune.
to hold firm; to hit hard.
to guess (to hit) right.
to reason (to aim) well.



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(a) Used Disjunctively, i.e. independently of a Verb:—
Es-tu malade?-Oui (je crois que oui).
Tu n'es pas malade, n'est-ce pas ?—
Si (je te dis que si).1
Vous payera-t-il ?—
Non (je crois que non).
Es-tu prêt?-Point du tout.
J'ai faim; et toi ?-Pas moi.

Are you ill?-Yes (I think so).
You are not ill, are you?—
Yes, I am (I tell you I am).
Will he pay you ?—

No (I think not).

Are you ready?-Not at all.

I am hungry; are you?—Not I.

(B) Used Conjunctively, i.e. qualifying a Verb expressed or understood, see § 58-59, and Syntax, § 152-155.

1 In answer to a negative question.


Interjections are Adverbial Phrases expressing—


(a) Surprise :


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ah! oh! ô!; tiens! quoi! vraiment!

par exemple! lo! what! indeed!

ah! bon!; bien! à la bonne heure! bravo! well done! allons! courage! en avant! come! cheer up! forwards!

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ciel miséricorde ! O heavens! have mercy! au feu! au secours! au voleur! fire! help! stop thief!

fi fi donc! fie! for shame!

st! chut! silence! paix! be quiet! silence! hush!

bah! zest! fiddlestick !

gare! mind look out! take care!

Observation.-The French word encore !, used by the English, is expressed in French by the Latin word bis !


de: (for a systematic treatment of de as the sign of the Lat. Gen. and Abl. cases, and answering to the Lat. prep. de, see Synt. § 135-137).

(a) answering to from: i.e. denoting origin, starting point, difference, etc.

(1) after Nouns; (2) Adjectives or Verbs; and (3) Verbs: as,

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