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(b) Ceci, this; and cela, that, are used

(1) To denote things simply pointed at, but not mentioned (whilst celui denotes something mentioned before): as,

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(c) Celui-ci, this, this one; celui-là, that, that one. The difference in the use of celui, with or without ci or là, is this

Celui-ci points to a nearer object :—this ;
Celui-là points to a more distant object :—that,

celui-ci (m. s.).

celle-ci (f. s.).

not followed by a Com

plement: as,


That fish (water) is

fresher than this. ceux-ci (m. pl.). | Those trees(mountains) celles-ci (f. pl). S are higher than these.


Ce poisson-là est plus frais que
Cette eau-là est plus fraîche que
Ces arbres-là sont plus hauts que
Ces montagnes sont plus hautes que
Ce poisson-ci est moins frais que
Cette eau n'est pas si fraîche que
so fresh as that.
Ces champs-ci sont plus beaux que ceux-là. These fields are finer
Ces prairies-ci sont plus belles que celles-là. These meadows than those.

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This fish (water) is not

Homer and Virgil are great poets: the latter was a Roman, the former a Greek.

(d) Celui refers back to a Noun mentioned before, and is followed by a Complement, whether it be an Attribute or an Adjective Clause: as,

Le port du Hâvre est plus grand que The port of Havre is larger than that celui de Dieppe.

Votre traduction est plus facile que
celle que je viens de finir.
Celui qui est content est heureux.
Celle qui aura fini la première sera

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of Dieppe.

Your translation is easier than the
one I have just finished.
He who is content is happy.

She who has done first will get a

Those (they) who persevere will succeed.




The RELATIVE PRONOUN agrees with its Antecedent in Gender, Number, and Person; in Case it agrees with the construction of its own clause;

But only lequel (not qui) has special forms for both masc. and fem.,

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singular and plural.

Masculine and Feminine Singular.

N. Les amis (amies)
A. Les amis (amies)
G. Les amis (amies)

qui travaille.
que1 j'estime.
dont l'enfant est ici.
dont3 (de qui) je parle.
à qui (auquel) je parle.

The friend who works.

The friend whom2 I esteem.
The friend whose child is here.
The friend of whom I speak.

à qui (à laquelle) je The friend to whom I speak. parle.

Masculine and Feminine Plural.

qui travaillent.
que1 j'estime.

dont les enfants.

Abl. Les amis (amies) dont3 je parle.

The friends who work.
The friends whom2 I esteem.
The friends whose children.
The friends of whom I speak.
The friends to whom I

Les amis (amies) à qui (auxquels) je parle.

D. (Les amis (amies) à qui (auxquelles); parle.)


who, which, that.

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Masculine and Feminine Singular.

N. Le livre (la lettre) qui est là.
A. Le livre (la lettre) que1 je lis.
G. Le livre (la lettre) dont la fin.
Abl. Le livre (la lettre) dont je parlais.
à laquelle cela
se réfère.

Le livre

D. La lettre

The book (letter) which is there.
The book (letter) which I read.
The book (letter) of which the end...
The book (letter) of which I spoke.
The book
to which,

The letter

Masculine and Feminine Plural.

to which that refers.

N. Les livres (lettres) qui sont écrit(e)s. The books (letters) which are written. A. Les livres (lettres) que1 je lis. The books (letters) which I read. G. Les livres (lettres) dont la fin. The books (letters) of which the end... Abl. Les livres (lettres) dont je parlais. The books (letters) of which I spoke. Les livres auxquels The books to which auxquelles cela The letters se réfère.

D. Les lettres


to which that re


(1) Qu' instead of que before a vowel or silent h:-qu'il, qu'elle, etc. (2) Governed by a Prepos., whom, always


qui, and never que;

(3) Or, but less usual, masc. duquel, desquels; fem. de laquelle, desquelles. (4) In the Nom. lequel, laquelle, etc., is as a Rule used only to avoid ambiguity. The Accusative is exactly the same as the Nom., and is rather unusual. (5) Or, according to (a) de qui, or dont, m. and ƒ.

(6) Or-la fin duquel (de laquelle); but not "de qui."
(7) Or-la fin desquels (desquelles); but not "de qui.”
(8) Or-duquel (de laquelle) je parlais; but not "de qui."
(9) Or-desquels (desquelles) je parlais; but not "de qui."

And so with all other Prepositions :

(1) Referring to Persons. L'homme avec qui

(2) Referring to Things.
Le clou avec lequel, with which...

with whom...

L'amie par qui (or laquelle), by whom. La ville par laquelle, through which. Les ennemis contre qui

Les ennemis contre lesquels} against Les courants contre lesquels, against

Les amies pour qui


Les amies pour lesquelles (whom...


Les affaires pour lesquelles, for which.

(d) Où, where, is often used as a Relative Pronoun instead of dans

lequel, auquel, vers lequel, and after other Propositions: as,

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Observation. As dont is virtually de qui, it follows that it is used with any Noun, Adjective, or Verb, governing de:

L'écolier dont je suis content.

The pupil with whom I am satisfied.

C'est un accident dont je suis fâché. It is an accident for which I am sorry. La famille dont il sort.

Le succès dont ils se réjouissent.

Le manière dont il s'y prend.

The family from which he descends.
The success at which they rejoice.
The manner in which he sets about it.

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Observation. After whose the Direct Object is placed before the Verb in English, whilst in French it keeps its usual place after the Verb, and retains the Definite Article: as,

Nom. L'ami dont le conseil est précieux.

Acc. L'ami dont je suis le conseil.

Dat. L'ami au conseil duquel je me


The friend whose advice is precious.

The friend whose advice I follow.

The friend to whose advice I submit.

(e) RELATIVE PRONOUNS used Absolutely :-
(1) Introducing a Dependent Clause.

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(2) Introducing an Appositive Clause.

Nom. Ils sont revenus, ce qui m'étonne. They have come back, which


surprises me.

La banque a failli, ce que j'avais The bank has failed, (a fact)
which I had anticipated.

Dat. La guerre est déclarée, ce à quoi je War has been declared, just as

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(1) Or emphatically-Qui est-ce qui a fait cela ?

(2) Notice that-qui, relative pron., has the acc.:— que.
qui? interrogative pron., has the acc. :-qui?

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(3) Or, Plural-lesquels, lesquelles, auxquelles, etc. To single out one or more objects from a number, lequel, laquelle, etc., must be used for which?

Nom. Qu'est-ce qui vous afflige?

Que ferai-je ?

Acc. Qu'est-ce que vous voulez ?

Gen. De quoi vous mêlez-vous ? Dat. A quoi cela sert-il ?

What grieves you?
What am I to do?

What do you want?

What do you trouble yourself about?
What is that good for?

Que? refers to things, and as Subject is used with Impersonal Verbs only. After Prepositions it is changed into quoi.

(b) Used Adjectively :

Nom. Quel capitaine commandait ce What (which) captain was in

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