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SPECIAL RULES.-Subject to the general laws laid down ove, an Adjective in French is placed—

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(b) exceptionally, before the Noun:

(1) in poetic diction:

Témoin nous que punit la romaine avarice.

La grecque beauté (Lafontaine).

Adieu charmant

France!

Son prétendu droit. C'est un rusé compère.

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Un assuré (fig.impudent) menteur.

Here notice the use of a Noun used adjectively with a Genit. in apposition:

Quel chien de commerce!
Notre grand flandrin de vicomte.

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Observation. The laws of euphony very often overrule all other considerations in determining the place of an Adjective; thus-astres brillants, but — brillante lumière.

(c) LIST OF ADJECTIVES WHICH, in accordance with the General Rule (§ 123), CHANGE THEIR MEANING ACCORDING AS THEY ARE PLACED before OR after THE NOUN :

:

Une preuve certaine, a certain (posi- Une certaine quantité, a certain (given) tive) proof.

Une étoffe chère, an expensive stuff. Des moyens différents, diverse means.

Une clef fausse, a wrong key.
Un homme franc, a candid man.
Un homme galant, a ladies' man.
Un homme honnête, a civil man.
Un homme malhonnête, a rude man.

quantity.

Mon cher ami, my dear friend. Différents moyens, several (sundry)

means.

Une fausse clef, a skeleton key.
Un franc coquin, a downright scamp.
Un galant homme, a gentleman.
Un honnête homme, an honest man.
Un malhonnête homme, a dishonest

man.

Un auteur pauvre, an indigent author. Un pauvre auteur, an indifferent

Un conte plaisant, an amusing tale, Une chemise propre, a clean shirt. Un mot seul, a word alone,

Un conte vrai (véritable), a true tale.

author.

Un plaisant conte, an absurd tale.

Une propre chemise, a shirt of one's own.
Un seul mot, a single word (only).
Un vrai conte, a regular story.

* Most Adjectives ending thus being technical terms, must on that account alone stand after the Noun. (See § 123.)

(d) LIST OF ADJECTIVES THAT CHANGE THEIR MEANING before OR after certain NOUNS ONLY:

Un homme brave, a brave man.
Un homme grand, a tall man.
Une dame grande, a tall lady.
L'air mauvais, vicious look.
Un homme petit, a mean man.

Une voix commune, a common (vulgar)
voice.

Des vers méchants, wicked verses.
L'année dernière, last year.

La semaine dernière, last week.

Un brave homme, a worthy man.

Un grand homme, a man of genius.
Une grande dame, a lady of rank.
Le mauvais air, vulgar appearance.
Un petit homme, a short man.
D'une commune voix, unanimously.

De méchants vers, wretched verses.
La dernière année, the last year.
La dernière semaine de l'an, the last
week of the year.

Un habit nouveau, a new-fashioned Un nouvel habit, another coat.

coat.

Un habit neuf, a newly-made coat.

For the Noun qualified by another Noun, see § 16.

For the Noun qualified by an Adjective Clause, see § 158 and § 163.

THIRD CHAPTER: THE ADVERBIAL RELATION.

N.B.-Under Adverbial Relation is comprised everything which in any way—whether as Object (Direct and Indirect) or as Adverbial Complement— depends on, or modifies, the Verb.

125 INTRODUCTORY:-An Adverbial Adjunct, i.e. a term which completes a Verb, Adjective, Adverb, or Phrase, may be, as in English :—

(A) a Noun-Object or Pronoun-Object, either (1) Direct, (2) Indirect, or (3) Secondary: as,

Il chasse le renard.

Il le chasse.

Il donne le pain au mendiant. Il le lui donne.

On se souvient de la guerre.

On s'en souvient.

(B) a Noun-Complement, or Pronoun-Complement, either (1) Direct, (2) Indirect, or (3) Secondary: as,

Nous arrivâmes le matin. Il partit de bonne heure.
J'arrivai à midi. Je suis retourné chez lui.

Il a agi avec prudence. Je le défendrai envers et contre tous.

(C) a Verbal Noun, i.e. a verb in the Infinitive (see §§ 40-4): as, J'espère réussir. Il vint à passer.

Il est lent à se fâcher. Elle vient d'arriver.

(D) a Present Participle proper (see §§ 145-6): as,

L'appétit vient en mangeant. Le mal va empirant.

or a Participle (expressed or understood) used absolutely: as,

Il fondit sur l'ennemi,* l'épée à la main (* ayant, understood).

(E) a Perfect Participle (see §§ 147-150); as,

Il est resté mort sur le champ de bataille.

(F) an Adverb or Adverbial Pronoun (see §§ 152-6): as,

Il a agi prudemment. Il est arrivé aujourd'hui.

J'en reviens.

J'y vais.

(G) a Substantive Clause (see §§ 161-2): as, Nous désirons que cela se fasse.

(H) an Adverbial Clause (see §§ 161-165): as,

Il mit à la voile dès que le vent tomba.

N.B.-In order not to break up the Syntax of Cases, the uses of Nouns and Pronouns, either

(A) as Objects depending on the Government of Verbs and Adjectives; or (B) as Complements (Phrases) independent of the Government of Verbs and

Adjectives,

will be treated together under the following heads :—

I. The Noun or Pronoun used without Pre

position (Accusative).

II. The Noun or Pronoun with à (Dative).
III. The Noun or Pronoun with de (Genitive).

(A) As Object.
(B) As Complement.

126 I. THE NOUN-OBJECT OR NOUN-COMPLEMENT USED WITHOUT PREPOSITION (ACCUSATIVE CASE).

A. The Direct Object:

RÉSUMÉ.

(a) After Transitive Verbs; (b) after Factitive Verbs;

(c) after Verbs of Teaching, etc.;

(d) Acc. and Infinit. after Verbs of Thinking, Saying, etc.

B. The Direct Complement :

Adverbial Phrases answering the questions how long? how far? etc.

A.-THE DIRECT OBJECT.*

[* If a Conjunct Pers. Pron. :-me, te (moi, toi), le, la; nous, vous, les. See §§ 26-30; if a Relative Pronoun :-que, lequel, laquelle, etc. See § 35.]

as,

(a) The Accusative is used after all kinds of Transitive Verbs :

La pluie arrose la terre.

Joseph eut un songe.

The rain moistens the earth.

Joseph had a dream.

Les richesses, que l'avare croit Wealth, which the miser fancies he

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possesses, possesses him.

I have spent the summer in the

country.

Observation 1.-Many originally intransitive Verbs may be used transitively, and-vice versâ-originally transitive Verbs are used intransitively :

Sonner ses domestiques.

Tel fiance qui n'épouse pas (Prov.)

To ring for one's servants.
There is many a slip 'twixt cup and lip.

Some also may-in strict analogy with Latin—become transitive by taking a prefix: as, Parcourir un champ, endormir un enfant, encourir une amende. [Hannibal Alpes cum exercitu transiit].

Observation 2.-A few Intransitive Verbs- as, aller, courir, causer, sentir, jouer, take a Cognate Accusative (see, however, also § 136, Cogn. Gen.):—

Jouer grand jeu [Ludere lusum].

Cela sent l'huile [Olet unguentum].

Il put (archaic for-pue) son ancienneté.
[Redolet antiquitatem]-(Mol. Femmes Sav.)

To play high.
That smells of oil.

It smacks of antiquity.

Observation 3.-Some Verbs take a Direct Object in French which in English require a Preposition as,

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Observation 4.-In the Prepositions voici, voilà, the Verb voir retains its transitive

force: as,

Me voici; te voilà.

L'homme que voilà.

Here I am; there you are.

That man there.

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