OUP Oxford, Aug 10, 2006 - Science - 269 pages
Bird flight has always intrigued mankind. This book provides an up to date account of our existing knowledge on the subject, as well as offering new insights and challenging some established views. A brief history of the science of flight introduces the basic physical principles governing aerial locomotion. A treatment of flight-related functional morphology concentrates on the difference in shape of the arm and hand part of the wings, on the structure and function of tails, and on the shape of the body. The anatomy and mechanical properties of feathers receive special attention. Aerodynamic principles used by birds are explained in theory by simply applying Newton's laws, and in practice by showing the direction and velocity of the attached flow around an arm wing cross section and of the leading edge vortex flow above a hand wing. The Archaeopteryx fossils remain crucial in our understanding of the evolution of bird flight despite the recent discovery of a range of well-preserved ancient birds. A novel insight into the interactions between wings and air challenges established theories relating to the origin of bird flight. Take-off, flapping flight, gliding and landing are the basic ingredients of bird flight, and birds use a variety of flight styles from hovering to soaring. Flight muscles consisting of mosaics of specialised fibres are the engines that generate the force required to keep the wings and tail in the gliding configuration and perform work during flapping motion. The energy required to fly can be estimated or measured directly, and a comparison of the empirical results provides insights into the trend in metabolic costs of flight of birds varying in shape and mass from hummingbirds to albatrosses.
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Beak, head, and neck might not be "handicaps" to flight; those upfront structures might so treat the air stream for beneficial use by main wings. Perhaps the canard structures are assets to flight; Nature seems to have let the arrangement be the winner.
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acceleration activity aerodynamic aircraft albatross amount angle animal Archaeopteryx attached average birds body mass Calculated caused Chapter close common cycle decrease direction distance downstroke drag edge effect energy equal estimate et al example extremely feathers figures flapping flight costs flow flying force frequencies function gliding hand wing hovering humerus hummingbird increase indicated joint kestrels landing leading edge length less lift lift force maximum measured mechanical move movements muscles oxygen patterns period petrel pigeon position possible pressure primaries probably range reach relative respect rotation running shape side species speed starling starts stretched structures studies surface swift Table tail technique unit upstroke usually values vane vary velocity vertical vortex weight wind wind tunnel wing beat wing tip