Brainwashing: The Fictions of Mind Control : a Study of Novels and Films Since World War II

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Kent State University Press, 2004 - History - 325 pages

An examination of the literary and cinematic representations of brainwashing during the Cold War era

"Brainwashing: A method for systematically changing attitudes or altering beliefs, originated in totalitarian countries, especially through the use of torture, drugs, or psychological-stress techniques" --Random House Dictionary

The term "brainwashing," coined during the Korean War, was popularized by a CIA operative who was a tireless campaigner against communism. It took hold quickly and became a means to articulate fears of totalitarian tendencies in American life. David Seed traces the assimilation of the notion of brainwashing into science fiction, political commentary, and conspiracy narratives of the Cold War era. He demonstrates how these works grew out of a context of political and social events and how they express the anxieties of the time.

This study reviews 1950s science fiction, Korean War fiction, and the film The Manchurian Candidate. Seed provides new interpret-ations of writers such as Orwell and Burroughs within the history of psychological manipulation for political purposes, using declassified and other documents to contextualize the material. He explores the shifting viewpoints of how brainwashing is represented, changing from an external threat to American values to an internal threat against individual American liberties by the U.S. government.

Anyone with an interest in science fiction, popular culture, or the Cold War will welcome this study.



Precursors Nineteen EightyFour in Context
Brainwashing Defined and Applied
Dystopias Invasions and Takeovers
The Impact of Korea
The Manchurian Candidate
William Burroughs Control Technologies Viruses and Psychotronics
Psychotherapy and Social Enforcement
The Control of Violence
The Guinea Pigs
Cyberpunk and Other Revisions

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Page xix - A really efficient totalitarian state would be one in which the all-powerful executive of political bosses and their army of managers control a population of slaves who do not have to be coerced, because they love their servitude.
Page 27 - The intent is to change a mind radically so that its owner becomes a living puppet — a human robot — without the atrocity being visible from the outside. The aim is to create a mechanism in flesh and blood, with new beliefs and new thought processes inserted into a captive body.
Page 10 - Hell is no less hell for being antiseptic. In the 1984 of Big Brother one would at least know who the enemy was— a bunch of bad men who wanted power because they liked power. But in the other kind of 1984 one would be disarmed for not knowing who the enemy was, and when the day of reckoning came the people on the other side of the table wouldn't be Big Brother's bad henchmen; they would be a mild-looking group of therapists who, like the Grand Inquisitor, would be doing what they did to help you.
Page 9 - It was as though some huge force were pressing down upon you— something that penetrated inside your skull, battering against your brain, frightening you out of your beliefs, persuading you, almost, to deny the evidence of your senses. In the end the Party would announce that two and two made five, and you would have to believe it. It was inevitable that they should make that claim sooner or later: the logic of their position demanded it. Not merely the validity of experience, but the very existence...
Page xv - American dread that someone else is patterning your life, that there are all sorts of invisible plots afoot to rob you of your autonomy of thought and action.