« PreviousContinue »
GENERAL RULE.—Add together the numbers that denote the proportion of the shares. Then,
As the sum of the said proportional numbers,
Is to the whole sum to be parted or divided,
Or, As the whole stock, is to the whole gain or loss,
So is each man's particular stock, to his particular share of the gain or loss. To prove the work.-Add all the shares or parts together, and the sum will be equal to the whole number to be shared, when the work is right.
1. To divide the number 240 into three such parts, as shall be in proportion to each other as the three numbers 1, 2, and 3.
Here 1+ 2+ 3 = 6 the sum of the proportional numbers.
Then, as 6
240 :: 1:
40 the 1st part,
Sum of all 240, the proof.
2. Three persons, A, B, C, freighted a ship with 340 tuns of wine; of which, A loaded 110 tuns, B 97, and C the rest in a storm the seamen were obliged to throw overboard 85 tuns; how much must each person sustain of the loss?
97 207 tuns, loaded by A and B ;
1: 110: 27
tuns A's loss;
Sum 85 tuns, the proof.
3. Two merchants, C and D, made a stock of 1207.; of which C contributed 75%., and D the rest; by trading they gained 307.; what must each have of it? Ans. C 187. 15s., and D 11. 5s. 4. Three merchants, E, F, G, made a stock of 7007.; of which E contributed 1237., F 3587., and G the rest; by trading they gain 1257. 10s.; what must each have of it? Ans. E must have 227. 1s. Od. 2339. 64 3 8 03323. 39 5 3 135.
5. A general imposing a contribution* of 7007., on four villages, to be paid in proportion to the number of inhabitants contained in each; the 1st containing 250, the 2d 350, the 3d 400, and the 4th 500 persons: what part must each village pay? Ans. the 1st to pay 16. 13s. 4d.
the 2d the 3d the 4th
163 6 8 186 13 4 233 6 8
Contribution is a tax paid by provinces, towns, villages, &c., to excuse them from being plun. dered, and is paid iu provisions or in money, and sometimes in both.
6. A piece of ground, consisting of 37 ac. 2 ro. 14 ps. is to be divided among three persons, L, M, and N, in proportion to their estates: now if L's estate be worth 5002 a year, M's 3207., and N's 75%.; what quantity of land must each one have? Ans. L must have 20 ac. 3 ro. 3914 ps. 13 1 30수 3 0 23178
7. A person is indebted to O 577. 15s., to P 1087. 3s. 8d., to Q 22l. 10d., and to R 731.; but at his decease, his effects are found to be worth no more than 1707. 14s.: how must it be divided among his creditors?
Ans. O must have 377. 15s. 5d. 253039.
47 14 11
8. A ship worth 9007., being entirely lost, of which belonged to S, to T, and the rest to V; what loss will each sustain, supposing 5401. of her were insured? Ans. S will lose 451., T 907., and V 225/. 9. Four persons, W, X, Y, and Z, spent among them 25s, and agree that W shall pay of it, X }, Y 4, and Z; that is, their shares are to be in proportion as,,, 4, and ; what are their shares? Ans. W must pay 9s. 8d. 344q.
6 5 3959 4 10 ......... 3 10
10. A detachment, consisting of five companies, being sent into a garrison, in which the duty required 76 men a day; what number of men must be furnished by each company, in proportion to their strength; the 1st consisting of 54 men, the 2d of 51 men, the 3d of 48 men, the 4th of 39 men, and the 5th of 36 men? Ans. The 1st must furnish 18, the 2d 17, the 3d 16, the 4th 13, and the 5th 12 men.*
DOUBLE FELLOWSHIP, as has been said, is concerned in cases in which the stocks of partners are employed or continued for different times.
RULE.-Multiply each person's stock by the time of its continuance; then divide the quantity, as in Single Fellowship, into shares in proportion to these products, by saying,
As the total sum of all the said products,
Is to the whole gain or loss, or quantity to be parted,
So is each particular product,
To the corresponding share of the gain or loss.
⚫ Questions of this nature frequently occurring in military service, general Haviland, an officer of great merit, contrived an ingenious instrument, for more expeditiously resolving them; which is distinguished by the name of the inventor, being called a Haviland.
The proof of this rule is as follows: when the times are equal, the shares of the gain or loss are evidently as the stocks, as in Single-Fellowship; and when the stocks are equal, the shares are as the times: therefore, when neither are equal, the shares must be as their products.
1. A had in company 507. for 4 months, and B had 607. for 5 months; at the end of which they find 247. gained: how must it be divided between them?
200+300 = 500.
Then, as 500: 24:: 200: 93 = 97. 12s. A's share,
2. C and D hold a piece of ground in common, for which they are to pay 367. C put in 23 horses for 27 days, and D 21 horses for 39 days; how much ought each man to pay of the rent? Ans: C must pay 15l. 10s. 6d. D..... 20 9 6.
3. Three persons, E, F, G, hold a pasture in common, for which they are to pay 30%. per annum; into which E put 7 oxen for 3 months, F put 9 oxen for 5 months, and G put in 4 oxen for 12 months; how much must each person pay of the rent? Ans. E must pay 5l. 10s. 6d. 159.
16 10 0%
4. A ship's company take a prize of 10007., which they agree to divide among them according to their pay and the time they have been on board: now the officers and midshipmen have been on board 6 months, and the sailors 3 months; the officers have 40s. a month, the midshipmen 30s., and the sailors 22s. a month; moreover, there are 4 officers, 12 midshipmen, and 110 sailors: what will each man's share be? Ans. each officer, must have 231. 2s. 5d. 09. each midship., 17 6 9 3,9%. each seaman, 6 2 0193. 5. H, with a capital of 10007., began trade the first of January, and, meeting with success in business, took in I as a partner, with a capital of 15007., on the first of March following. Three months after that they admit K as a third partner, who brought into stock 28001. After trading together till the end of the year, they find there has been gained 17767. 10s.: how must this be divided among the partners? Ans. H must have 4571. 9s. 44d. I 571 16 81 K 747 3 114
6. X, Y, and Z, made a joint-stock for 12 months; X at the first put in 201, and 4 months after 201. more; Y put in at the first 307., at the end of 3 months he put in 207. more, and 2 months after he put in 40%. more; Z put in at first 607., and 5 months after he put in 107. more, 1 month after which he took out 30%.; during the 12 months they gained 50!; how much of it must each have? Ans. X must have 107. 18s. 6d. 342y. 1 01/12/1 4 0
INTEREST is the premium or sum allowed for the loan, or forbearance of money. The money lent, or forborn, is called the Principal.
The sum of the principal and its interest, added together, is called the Amount
Interest is allowed at so much per cent. per annum; which premium per cent. per annum, or interest of a 100%. for a year, is called the Rate of Interest:—So, When interest is at 3 per cent. the rate is 3;
4 per cent.
But, by law, interest ought not to be taken higher than at the rate of 5 per
Interest is of two sorts; Simple and Compound.
Simple Interest is that which is allowed for the principal lent or forborn only, for the whole time of forbearance.
As the interest of any sum, for any time, is directly proportional to the principal sum, and also to the time of continuance; hence arises the following general rule of calculation.
GENERAL RULE.-As 1007. is to the rate of interest, so is any given principal to its interest for one year. And again,
As 1 year is to any given time, so is the interest for a year, just found, to the interest of the given sum for that time.
Otherwise.—Take the interest of 1 pound for a year, which, multiply by the given principal, and this product again by the time of loan or forbearance, in years and parts, for the interest of the proposed sum for that time.
Note. When there are certain parts or years in the time, as quarters, or months, or days; they may be worked for either by taking the aliquot or like parts of the interest of a year, or by the Rule of Three, in the usual way. Also, to divide by 100, is done by only pointing off two figures for decimals.
1. To find the interest of 2307. 10s., for 1 year, at 4 per cent. per annum. Here, as 100: 4 :: 230l. 10s.: 97. 4s. 43d.
S. 3 2500
Ans. 91. 4s. 43d.
2. To find the interest of 5477. 15s., for 3 years, at 5 per cent. per annum,
As, 100 5: 547 15:
Or, 20: 1 :: 547-75: 27.3875 interest for 1 year.
i. 82.1625 ditto for 3 years,
Ans. 821. 3s. 3d.
3. To find the interest of 200 guineas, for 4 years, 7 months, and 25 days, at 4 per cent. per annum.
ds. as, 365 or, 73
9. 13120 Ans. 431. 19s. 21d.
9:45 :: 25:
73 ) 47·25 ( ·6472
4. To find the interest of 4501., for a year, at 5 per cent. per annum.
Ans. 227. 10s
5. To find the interest of 2307. 10s., for a year, at 4 per cent. per annum.
7. To find the interest of 7201., for 3 years, at 5 per cent.
Ans. 108/ 8. To find the interest of 355l. 15s., for 4 years, at 4 per cent. per annum. Ans. 567. 18s. 43d. 9. To find the interest of 321, 5s. 8d., for 7 years, at 4 per cent. per annum. Ans. 97. 12s. 1d. 0. To find the interest of 170l., for 1 year, at 5 per cent. per annum. Ans. 127. 15s. 11. To find the insurance of 2057. 15s., for of a year at 4 per cent. per annum. Ans. 21. 18. 13d. 12. To find the interest of 3197. 6d., for 52 years, at 33 per cent. per annum. Ans. 687. 158. 9d. 13. To find the insurance on 1077., for 117 days, at 43 per cent. per annum. Ans. 17. 12s. 7d. 14. To find the interest of 177. 5s., for 117 days, at 43 per cent. per annum. Ans. 5s. 3d. 15. To find the insurance on 7127. 6s., for 8 months, at 7 per cent. per annum. Ans. 351. 12s. 3d.
Note. The rules for Simple Interest, serve also to calculate Insurances, or the Purchase of Stocks, or any thing else that is rated at so much per cent. See also more on the subject of Interest, with the algebraical expression and investigation of the rules, at the end of the Algebra, next following.