51. A Semicircle is half the circle, or a segment cut off by a diameter. The half circumference is sometimes called the Semicircle. 52. A Sector is any part of a circle which is bounded by an arc, and two radii drawn to its extremities. 53 A Quadrant, or Quarter of a circle, is a sector having a quarter of the circumference for its arc, and its two radii are perpendicular to each other. A quarter of the circumference is sometimes called a Quadrant. 54. The Height or Altitude of a figure is a perpendicular let fall from an angle, or its vertex, to the opposite side, called the base. 55. In a right-angled triangle, the side opposite the right angle is called the Hypothenuse; and the other two sides are called the Legs, and sometimes the Base and Perpendicular. 56. When an angle is denoted by three letters, of which one stands at the angular point, and the other two on the two sides, that which stands at the angular point is read in the middle. 2 # 58. The Measure of an angle is an arc of any circle contained between the two lines which form that angle, the angular point being the centre; and it is estimated by the number of degrees contained in that arc. 59. Lines, or chords, are said to be Equidistant from the centre of a circle, when perpendiculars drawn to them from the centre are equal. 60. And the right line on which the Greater Perpendi cular falls, is said to be farther from the centre. 61. An Angle in a Segment is that which is contained by two lines, drawn from any point in the arc of the segment, to the two extremities of that arc. O O O D 57. The circumference of every circle is supposed to be divided into 360 equal parts called degrees; and each degree into 60 Minutes, each Minute into 60 Seconds, and so on. Hence a semicircle contains 180 degrees, and a quadrant 90 degrees. o 63. An Angle at the circumference, is that whose angular point or summit is any where in the circumference. And an angle at the centre, is that whose angular point is at the centre. A E 62. An Angle on a segment, or an arc, is that which is contained by two lines, drawn from any point in the opposite or supplementary part of the circumference, to the extremities of the arc, and containing the arc between them. 64. A right-lined figure is Inscribed in a circle, or the circle Circumscribes it, when all the angular points of the figure are in the circumference of the circle. 65. A right-lined figure Circumscribes a circle, or the circle is Inscribed in it, when all the sides of the figure touch the circumference of the circle. 66. One right-lined figure is inscribed in another, or the latter circumscribes the former, when all the angular points of the former are placed in the sides of the latter. 67. A Secant is a line that cuts a circle, lying partly within, and partly without it. 68. Two triangles, or other right-lined figures, are said to be mutually equilateral, when all the sides of the one are equal to the corresponding sides of the other, each to each: and they are said to be mutually equiangular, when the angles of the one are respectively equal to those of the other. 69. Identical figures, are such as are both mutually equilateral and equiangular; or that have all the sides and all the angles of the one, respectively equal to all the sides and all the angles of the other, each to each; so that if the one figure were applied to, or laid upon the other, all the sides of the one would exactly fall upon and cover all the sides of the other; the two becoming as it were but one and the same figure. 70. Similar figures, are those that have all the angles of the one equal to all the angles of the other, each to each, and the sides about the equal angles pro portional. 71. The Perimeter of a figure, is the sum of all its sides taken together. 72. A Proposition, is something which is either proposed to be done, or to be demonstrated, and is either a problem or a theorem. 73. A Problem, is something proposed to be done. 74. A Theorem, is something proposed to be demonstrated. 75. A Lemma, is something which is premised, or demonstrated, in order to render what follows more easy. 76. A Corollary, is a consequent truth, gained immediately from some preceding truth, or demonstration. 77. A Scholium, is a remark or observation made upon something going before it. 3 AXIOMS. 1. THINGS which are equal to the same thing are equal to each other. 3. When equals are taken from equals, the remainders are equal. 4. When equals are added to unequals, the wholes are unequal. 5. When equals are taken from unequals, the remainders are unequal. 6. Things which are double of the same thing, or equal things, are equal to each other. 7. Things which are halves of the same thing, are equal. 8. Every whole is equal to all its parts taken together. 9. Things which coincide, or fill the same space, are identical, or mutually equal in all their parts. 10. All right angles are equal to one another. 11. Angles that have equal measures, or arcs, are equal. THEOREM I. If two triangles have two sides and the included angle in the one, equal to two sides and the included angle in the other, the triangles will be identical, or equal in all respects. In the two triangles ABC, DEF, if the side AC be equal to the side DF, and the side BC equal to the side EF, and the angle C equal to the angle F; then will the two triangles be identical, or equal in all respects. For conceive the triangle ABC to be applied to, or placed on, the triangle DEF, in such a manner that the point C may coincide with the point F, and the side AC with the side DF, which is equal to it. Then, since the angle F is equal to the angle C (by hyp.), the side BC will fall on the side EF. Also, because AC is equal to DF, and BC equal to EF (by hyp.), the point A will coincide with the point D, and the point B with the point E; consequently the side AB will coincide with the side DE. Therefore the two triangles are identical, and have all their other corresponding parts equal (ax. 9), namely, the side AB equal to the side DE, the angle A to the angle D, and the angle B to the angle E. Q. E. D. Å Å A B D THEOREM II. When two triangles have two angles and the included side in the one, equal to two angles and the included side in the other, the triangles are identical, or have their other sides and angles equal. Let the two triangles ABC, DEF, have the angle A equal to the angle D, the angle B equal to the angle E, and the side AB equal to the side DE; then these two triangles will be identical. ÅÅ B D E A For, conceive the triangle ABC to be placed on the triangle DEF, in such manner that the side AB may fall exactly on the equal side DE. Then, since the angle A is equal to the angle D (by hyp.), the side AC must fall on the side DF; and, in like manner, because the angle B is equal to the angle E, the side BC must fall on the side EF. Thus the three sides of the triangle ABC will be exactly placed on the three sides of the triangle DEF: consequently the two triangles are identical (ax. 9), having the other two sides AC, BC, equal to the two DF, EF, and the remaining angle C equal to the remaining angle F. Q. E. D. THEOREM III. In an isosceles triangle, the angles at the base are equal. Or, if a triangle have two sides equal, their opposite angles will also be equal. If the triangle ABC have the side AC equal to the side BC: then will the angle B be equal to the angle A. For, conceive the angle C to be bisected, or divided into two equal parts, by the line CD, making the angle ACD equal to the angle BCD. A D B Then, the two triangles ACD, BCD, have two sides and the contained angle of the one, equal to two sides and the contained angle of the other, viz. the side AC equal to BC, the angle ACD equal to BCD, and the side CD common; therefore these two triangles are identical, or equal in all respects (th. 1); and consequently the angle A equal to the angle B. Q. E. D. Corol. 1. Hence the line which bisects the vertical angle of an isosceles triangle, bisects the base, and is also perpendicular to it. Corol. 2. Hence too it appears, that every equilateral triangle, is also equiangular, or has all its angles equal. If the triangle ABC, have the angle A equal to the angle B, it will also have the side AC equal to the side BC. THEOREM IV. When a triangle has two of its angles equal, the sides opposite to them are also equal. For, conceive the side AB to be bisected in the point D, making AD equal to DB; and join DC, dividing the whole triangle into the two triangles ACD, BCD. Also conceive the triangle ACD to be turned over upon the triangle BCD, so that AD may fall on BD. A C C D B Then, because the line AD is equal to the line DB (by hyp.), the point A coincides with the point B, and the point D with the point D. Also, because the angle A is equal to the angle B (by hyp.), the line AC will fall on the line BC, and the extremity C of the side AC will coincide with the extremity C of the side BC, because DC is common to both; consequently the side AC is equal to BC. Q. E. D. Corol. Hence every equiangular triangle is also equilateral. THEOREM V. When two triangles have all the three sides in the one, equal to all the three sides in the other, the triangles are identical, or have also their three angles equal, each to each. Let the two triangles ABC, ABD, have their three sides respectively equal, viz. the side AB equal to AB, AC to AD, and BC to BD; then shall the two triangles be identical, or have their angles equal, viz. those angles that are opposite to the equal sides; namely, the angle BAC to the angle BAD, the angle ABC to the angle ABD, and the angle C to the angle D. For, conceive the two triangles to be joined together by their longest equal sides, and draw the line CD. A THEOREM VI. D' Then, in the triangle ACD, because the side AC is equal to AD (by hyp.), the angle ACD is equal to the angle ADC (th. 3). In like manner, in the triangle BCD, the angle BCD is equal to the angle BDC, because the side BC is equal to BD. Hence then, the angle ACD being equal to the angle ADC, and the angle BCD to the angle BDC, by equal additions the sum of the two angles, ACD, BCD, is equal to the sum of the two ADC, BDC, (ax. 2), that is, the whole angle ACB equal to the whole angle ADB. Since, then, the two sides AC, CB, are equal to the two sides AD, DB, each to each, (by hyp.), and their contained angles ACB, ADB, also equal, the two triangles ABC, ABD, are identical (th. 1), and have the other angles equal, viz. the angle BAC to the angle BAD, and the angle ABC to the angle ABD. Q. E. D. B When one line meets another, the angles which it makes on the same side of the other, are together equal to two right angles. Let the line AB meet the line CD: then will the two angles ABC, ABD, taken together, be equal to two right angles. For, first, when the two angles ABC, ABD, are equal to each other, they are both of them right angles (def. 15). But when the angles are unequal, suppose BE drawn perpendicular to CD. Then, since the two angles EBC, EBD, are right angles (def. 15), and the angle EBD is equal to the two angles EBA, ABD, together (ax. 8), the three angles, EBC, EBA, and ABD, are e qual to two right angles. But the two angles EBC, EBA, are together equal to the angle ABC (ax. 8). Consequently, the two angles ABC, ABD, are also equal to two right angles. Q. E. D. Corol. 1. Hence also, conversely, if the two angles ABC, ABD, on both E B D |