## Analytical Photogrammetry |

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**converge**because AB and CD are not parallel to the image plane . As AB and CD are produced vertically downward to infinity , the image traces of these lines**converge**at V- that is , when D ' and B ' are at infinity , LD ' and LB ...Page 9

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**converge**with the image plane . It may be further deduced from Figure 7 that vertical lines do not**converge**on a vertical image plane whereas horizontal lines**converge**sharply . The latter is also evident in Figure 9. Lines A , B ,, A ...Page 10

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**converge**at the nadir or on the horizon line . Consider two parallel lines , one passing each side of the observer and not parallel to either the observer's horizontal or vertical reference and making any angle with the observer's ...### Contents

Orientation | 10 |

Simplification of the Angular Orientation | 25 |

CHAPTER II | 31 |

Copyright | |

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A(aLb a₂ AB¹ aLb¹ analytical angular orientation approximation azimuth B₁ B₂ bLc¹ calibration camera coordinates camera station cLa¹ coefficients computed conjugate images converge coordinate system cos aLb cos Az cos Yz cos² datum defined determined differential dihedral angle direction angles direction cosines distortion equations error exposure station exterior orientation f cos Yz focal length geodetic geometry ground coordinates horizon camera horizon line illustrated in Figure image plane instrument intersection known LA² law of cosines measured n₁ n₂ nadir camera object space oblique optical axis perpendicular perspective projection photogrammetry photographic position principal plane principal point Q₁ rays reference plane rotation solution space coordinates spherical theodolite tilt and swing unknowns values vertical X₁ X₂ XL-XA XY plane Y₂ ya sin YA¹ YL-YA ZA¹ zenith angles zenith camera ZL-ZA ZL¹ ΔΥ